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Henry Purcell (1659-1695) - King Arthur

Henry Purcell (1659-1695) - King Arthur









Henry Purcell, King Arthur or The British Worthy. (With Dryden's libretto).



KING ARTHUR or the British Worthy /
LE ROI ARTHUR or le valeureux Breton /
KING ARTHUR oder Britanniens Würde


"A dramatick opera"

Livret/ Libretto : John DRYDEN (1631-1700)


==============================

VENUS
Veronique GENS, soprano/Sopran

PHILIDEL, HONOUR
Claron McFADDEN, soprano/Sopran

SHE
Sandrine PIAU, soprano/Sopran

CUPID, NEREID
Susannah WATERS, soprano/Sopran
Mark PADMORE, ténor/Tenor
Iain PATON, ténor/Tenor

GRIMBALD, HE
Jonathan BEST, basse/bass/Baß

COLD GENIUS, AEOLUS, COMUS
Petteri SALOMAA, basse/bass/Baß

PAN
François BAZOLA, basse/bass/Baß


==============================

LES ARTS FLORISSANTS
Direction/Conductor/Dirigent : WILLIAM CHRISTIE


----------------------------------------

­---------------

CHŒUR/CHORUS/CHOR

Anha
Bölkow, Anne Cambier, Mhairi Lawson, Violaine Lucas, Anne Mopin,
Brigitte Pelote, Valérie Picard, Anne Pichard, Sylviane Pitour, Carys
Lloyd Roberts, Sheena Wolstencroft, sopranos/Sopran

Jean-Xavier Combarieu, Richard Duguay, Jean-Yves Ravoux, Didier Rebuffet, Bruno Renhold, ténors I/Tenor I

Bruno-Karl Boës, François Piolino, Jean-Marie Puissant, Deryck Huw Webb, ténors II/Tenor II

François Bazola, Laurent Collobert, Jean-François Gay, David Le Monnier, Jean-Marc Mory, Christophe Olive, basses/Baß


Spirits of Grimbald
Mhairi
Lawson, Sheena Wolstencroft, Didier Rebuffet, Bruno Renhold, François
Piolino, Deryck Huw Webb, Laurent Collobert, David Le Monnier

Spirits of Philidel
Violaine
Lucas, Carys Lloyd Roberts, Richard Duguay, Jean-Yves Ravoux,
Bruno-Karl Boës, Jean-Marie Puissant, François Bazzola, Jean-François
Gay

Assistant musical charge du choeur/
musical assistant and chorus master/
Musikalischer Assistant und Choreinstudierung
François Bazola


----------------------------------------­---------------

ORCHESTRE/ORCHESTRA/ORCHESTER

Hiro
Kurosaki, Roberto Crisafulli. Simon Heyerick, Michèle Sauvé, Isabelle
Serrano, Peter Van Boxelaere, violons/violins/Violine I

Catherine Girard, Sophie Gevers-Demoures, Guya Martinini, Martha Moore, Ruth Weber, George Willms, violons/violins/Violine II

Galina Zinchenko, Nadine Davin, Marcial Moreiras, Anne Weber, altos/Violas/Viole

Emmanuel Balssa, Elena Andreyev, Paul carlioz, Alix Verzier, violoncelles/Cello

Jonathan Cable, contrebasse/double basse/Kontrabass

Sébastien Marq, flûte à bec/recorder/Querflöte

Christian Moreaux, Geoffrey Burgess, hatbois/Oboe

Hugo Reyne, taille de hautbois et flûte à bec/recorder/Querflöte

Paolo Tognon, Simon Rickard, bassons/bassoons/Fagott

Per Olov Lindeke, Gilles Rapin, trompettes/trumpets/Trompete

Marie-Ange Petit, Françoise Rivalland, percussions/percussion/Schlagzeug


CONTINUO
Jonathan Rubin, Elisabeth Kenny, théorbe/Théorbo
David Simpson. violoncelle/Cello
Anne-Marie Lasla, viole de gambe/viola da Gamba
Laurence
Cummings, clavecin et assistant à la direction musicale/harpsichord and
assistant director/ Cembalo und Assistent der musikalischen Leitung
(Harpsichord Rückers, D. Jacques Way et Marc Ducornet, Paris)




JOHN DRYDEN: KING ARTHUR OR THE BRITISH WORTHY, "A Dramatick Opera"



KING ARTHUR or THE BRITISH WORTHY
Semi opera in five acts

Libretto
John Dryden

Premiere
May or June 1691, London (Dorset Garden Theatre)

Cast
PHILADEL (Soprano)
GRIMBALD (Bass / Baritone)
SHEPHERD (Tenor)
CUPID (Soprano)
COLD GENIUS (Bass)
AEOLUS (Bass / Baritone)
VENUS (Soprano)

CHORUS
sheperds and shepherdesses, soldiers, spirits, satyrs etc.

Place
Britanny

Time
Middle Ages


ACT ONE
FIRST SCENE
King Arthur has secured all of his kingdom except Kent in the course of
the battles with the Saxons; they are led by Oswald, who has set out to
win not only his throne but his love, the blind Emmeline, daughter of
Conon, Duke of Cornwall. Arthur takes leave of her for the final,
decisive battle against the heathen invader.


SECOND SCENE
A place of heathen worship; the three saxon gods, Woden, Thor and Freya
placed on pedestals; an altar. Oswald, his magician Osmond and the
earthly evil spirit Grimbald have brought victims for a sacrifice, to
ensure victory in battle, and are preparing for the rites.  Grimbald
goes to the door, and re-enters with six Saxons in white, with swords in
their hands. They range, themselves three and three in opposition to
each other. The rest of the stage is filled with priests and singers.

BASS
Woden, first to thee
A milk-white steed, in battle won,
We have sacrific'd.

CHORUS
We have sacrific'd.

TENOR II
Let our next oblation be
To Thor, thy thund'ring son,
Of such another.

CHORUS
We have sacrific'd.

BASS
A third (of Friesland breed was he)
To Woden's wife, and to Thor's mother;
And now we have aton'd all three.

CHORUS
We have sacrific'd.

TENOR I & II
The white horse neigh'd aloud.
To Woden thanks we render,
To Woden we have vow'd,
To Woden, our defender.

CHORUS
To Woden thanks we render,
To Woden we have vow'd,
To Woden, our defender.

SOPRANO
The lot is cast, and Tanfan pleas'd;
Of mortal cares you shall be eas'd.

CHORUS
Brave souls, to be renown'd in story.
Honour prizing,
Death despising,
Fame acquiring
By expiring,
Die and reap the fruit of glory.

TENOR I
I call you all
To Woden's Hall,
Your temples round
With ivy bound
In goblets crown'd,
And plenteous bowls of burnish'd gold,
Where ye shall laugh
And dance and quaff
The juice that makes the Britons bold.

CHORUS
To Woden's Hall all,
Where in plenteous bowls of burnish'd gold,
We shall laugh
And dance and quaff
The juice that makes the Britons bold.

The six Saxons are led off by the priests, in order to be sacrificed.
Exeunt omnes. A battle supposed to be given behind the scenes, with
drums, trumpets, and military shouts and excursions, after which the
Britons, expressing their joy for the victory, sing this song of
triumph.

TENOR II
"Come if you dare," our trumpets sound.
"Come if you dare," the foes rebound.
We come, we come, we come, we come,"
Says the double, double, double beat of
the thund'ring drum.

CHORUS
"Come if you dare," our trumpets sound, etc.

TENOR II
Now they charge on amain.
Now they rally again.
The Gods from above the mad labour behold,
And pity mankind that will perish for gold.

CHORUS
Now they charge on amain, etc.

TENOR II
The fainting Saxons quit their ground,
Their trumpets languish in their sound,
They fly, they fly, they fly, they fly,
"Victoria, Victoria," the bold Britons cry.

CHORUS
The fainting Saxons quit their ground, etc.

TENOR II
Now the victory's won,
To the plunder we run,
We return to our lasses like fortunate traders,
Triumphant with spoils of the vanquish'd invaders.

CHORUS
Now the victory's won, etc.




ACT TWO

Philidel, a repentant airy spirit, reports to Merlin that Grimbald is
approaching and will attempt to mislead the conquering Britons to
cliffs, where they will fall to their deaths, by telling them that they
are pursuing the retreating Saxons. Merlin commands Philidel, assisted
by his band of spirits, to protect the Britons and counter. Grimbald's
forces. Exit Merlin in this chariot. Merlin's spirits stay with
Philidel. Enter Grimbald in the habit of a shepherd, followed by King
Arthur, Conon, Aurelius, Albanact and soldiers, who wander at a distance
in the scenes.

PHILIDEL
Hither, this way, this way bend,
Trust not the malicious fiend.
Those are false deluding lights
Wafted far and near by sprites.
Trust 'em not, for they'll deceive ye,
And in bogs and marshes leave ye.

CHORUS OF PHILIDEL'S SPIRITS
Hither, this way, this way bend.

CHORUS OF GRIMBALD' S SPIRITS
This way, hither, this way bend.

PHILIDEL
If you step no longer thinking,
Down you fall, a furlong sinking.
'Tis a fiend who has annoy'd ye:
Name but Heav'n, and he'll avoid ye.
Hither, this way.

PHILIDEL' S SPIRITS
Hither, this way, this way bend.

GRIMBALD' S SPIRITS
This way, hither, this way bend.

PHILIDEL' S SPIRITS
Trust not the malicious fiend.
Hither, this way, etc.

Conon and Albanact are persuaded not to follow Grimbald any further, but
Grimbald produces fresh footprints as proof that they are following the
Saxons.

GRIMBALD
Let not a moon-born elf mislead ye
From your prey and from your glory;
To fear, alas, he has betray'd ye;
Follow the flames that wave before ye,
Sometimes sev'n, and sometimes one.
Hurry, hurry, hurry, hurry on.

Ritornello

GRIMBALD
See, see the footsteps plain appearing.
That way Oswald chose for flying.
Firm is the turf and fit for bearing,
Where yonder pearly dews are lying.
Far he cannot hence be gone.
Hurry, hurry, hurry, hurry on.

All are going to follow Grimbald.

Ritornello

PHILIDEL'S SPIRITS
Hither, this way, this way bend.

GRIMBALD' S SPIRITS
Hither, this way, this way bend.

PHILIDEL'S SPIRITS
Trust not that malicious fiend.
Hither, this way, etc.

They all incline to Philidel. Grimbald curses Philidel and sinks with a
flash. Arthur gives thanks that the fiend has vanished.

PHILIDEL
Come, follow me.

SOLOS
Come, follow me,
And me, and me, and me, and me.

CHORUS
Come, follow me.

PHILIDEL, SOPRANO
And green-sward all your way shall be.

CHORUS
Come, follow me.

BASS
No goblin or elf shall dare to offend ye.

CHORUS
No goblin or elf shall dare to offend ye.

Ritornello

TWO SOPRANOS, TENOR
We brethren of air
You heroes will bear
To the kind and the fair that attend ye.

CHORUS
We brethren of air, etc.

Philidel and the spirits go off singing, with King Arthur and the rest
in the middle of them. Enter Emmeline led by Matilda. Pavilion Scene.
Emmeline and Matilda discuss King Arthur. Matilda entreats Emmeline to
forget her cares and let a group of Kentish lads and lasses entertain
her while she awaits Arthur's return. Enter shepherds and shepherdesses.

SHEPHERD
How blest are shepherds, how happy their lasses,
While drums and trumpets are sounding alarms.
Over our lowly sheds all the storm passes
And when we die, 'tis in each other's arms
All the day on our herds and flocks employing,
All the night on our flutes and in enjoying.

CHORUS
How blest are shepherds, how happy their lasses, etc.

SHEPHERD
Bright nymphs of Britain with graces attended,
Let not your days without pleasure expire.
Honour's but empty, and when youth is ended,
All men will praise you but none will desire.
Let not youth fly away without contenting;
Age will come time enough for your repenting.

CHORUS
Bright nymphs of Britain with graces attended, etc.

Here the men offer their flutes to the women, which they refuse.

Symphony

TWO SHEPHERDESSES
Shepherd, shepherd, leave decoying:
Pipes are sweet on summer's day,
But a little after toying,
Women have the shot to pay.
Here are marriage-vows for signing:
Set their marks that cannot write.
After that, without repining,
Play, and welcome, day and night.

Here the women give the men contracts, which they accept.

CHORUS
Come, shepherds, lead up a lively measure
The cares of wedlock are cares of pleasure:
But whether marriage bring joy or sorrow.
Make sure of this day and hang tomorrow

Hornpipe

The dance after the song, and exeunt shepherds and shepherdesses.

Second Act Tune: Air

Emmeline and Matilda are captured by Oswald, who has refused to release
them during a parley with Arthur. The Britons prepare to rescue Emmeline
from the Saxon fortress.




ACT THREE

FIRST SCENE
The Britons are panicked by the magic horrors that have been put around
the Saxon fortress to protect it and want to retreat. Arthur, however,
is prepared to attempt to penetrate them alone. Merlin advises him to
wait until after the spells have been broken, but does promise to spirit
him off to the captive Emmeline, and to restore her sight.


SECOND SCENE
A Deep Wood

Philidel is captured by Grimbald while trying to find Emmeline, but he
escapes and casts a strong spell over the evil spirit. Merlin and Arthur
enter; Merlin gives Philidel a vial containing the drops that will
restore Emmeline's sight and leaves to attempt to dispel the

dire enchantments in the wood. Emmeline and Matilda enter from the far
end of the wood. Arthur withdraws as Philidel approaches Emmeline,
sprinkling some of the water out of the vial over her eyes. Emmeline
sees Arthur for the first time, and tells him that not only Oswald, but
also Osmond desires her love. Airy spirits appear to congratulate her on
the recovery of her sight, but then vanish when Philidel announces the
approach of their foes. Emmeline and Matilda are left alone. Osmond,
whom Emmeline now sees for the first time, ardently woos her and boasts
how he has thrown Oswald into prison. Emmeline, frozen with terror,
refuses his advances, but Osmond assures her that Love will thaw her,
and demonstrates by using his magic wand to change Britain's mild clime
to Iceland and farthest Thule's frost.


THE FROST SCENE

Prelude

Osmond strikes the ground with his wand, the scene changes to a prospect
of winter in frozen countries.

Cupid descends.

CUPID
What ho! thou genius of this isle, what ho!
Liest thou asleep beneath those hills of snow?
Stretch out thy lazy limbs. Awake, awake!
And winter from thy furry mantle shake.

Prelude

Genius arises.

COLD GENIUS
What power art thou, who from below
Hast made me rise unwillingly and slow
From beds of everlasting snow?
See'st thou not how stiff and wondrous old,
Far unfit to bear the bitter cold,
I can scarcely move or draw my breath?
Let me, let me freeze again to death.

CUPID
Thou doting fool forbear, forbear!
What dost thou mean by freezing here?
At Love's appearing, All the sky clearing,
The stormy winds their fury spare.
Winter subduing,
And Spring renewing,
My beams create a more glorious year.
Thou doting fool, forbear, forbear!
What dost thou mean by freezing here?

COLD GENIUS
Great Love, I know thee now:
Eldest of the gods art thou.
Heav'n and earth by thee were made.
Human nature is thy creature,
Ev'rywhere thou art obey'd.

CUPID
No part of my dominion shall he waste:
To spread my sway and sing my praise
E'en here I will a people raise
Of kind embracing lovers, and embrac'd.

Cupid waves his wand, upon which the scene opens, discovers a prospect
of ice and snow. Singers and dancers, men and women, appear.

Prelude

CHORUS OF COLD PEOPLE
See, see, we assemble
Thy revels to hold:
Tho' quiv'ring with cold
We chatter and tremble.

Dance

CUPID
'Tis I, 'tis I, 'tis I that have warm'd ye.
In spite of cold weather
I've brought ye together.
'Tis I, 'tis I, 'tis I that have warm'd ye,

Ritornello

CHORUS
'Tis Love, 'tis Love, 'tis Love
that has warm'd us.
In spite of the weather
He brought us together.
'Tis Love, 'tis Love, 'tis Love
that has warm'd us.

CUPID & COLD GENIUS
Sound a parley, ye fair, and surrender,
Set yourselves and your lovers at ease.
He's a grateful offender
Who pleasure dare seize:
But the whining pretender
Is sure to displease.
Sound a parley, ye fair, and surrender.
Since the fruit of desire is possessing,
'Tis unmanly to sigh and complain.
When we kneel for redressing,
We move your disdain.
Love was made for a blessing
And not for a pain.

Ritornello

CHORUS
'Tis Love, 'tis Love, 'tis Love
that has warm'd us, etc.

Third Act Tune: Hornpipe

A dance; after which the singers and dancers depart. Emmeline is saved
from Osmond's lustful advances when the ensnared Grimbald cries out,
compelling the magician to go to the rescue of his evil spirit.




ACT FOUR

FIRST SCENE
Osmond learns that Merlin has broken his spells but plans to cast new
spells and seduce Arthur with visions of beauty.


SECOND SCENE
The Wood

Arthur, having first been warned by Merlin that everything he sees is
illusion, is left alone in the wood under the watchful eye of Philidel,
who can reveal any evil spirits with a wave of Merlin's wand. Arthur is
amazed that instead of the horrors and dangers he had expected, he hears
soft music and sees a golden bridge spanning a silver stream. Though
suspecting a trap, he approaches the bridge. Two sirens naked to the
waist, emerge, begging him to lay aside his sword and join them.

TWO SIRENS
Two daughters of this aged stream are we,
And both our sea-green locks have comb'd for ye.
Come bathe with us an hour or two;
Come naked in, for we are so.
What danger from a naked foe?
Come bathe with us, come bathe, and share
What pleasures in the floods appear.
We'll beat the waters till they bound
And circle round, and circle round.

Though sorely tempted, Arthur resists and presses on.As he is going
forward, nymphs and sylvans come out from behind the trees. Dance with
song, all with branches in their bands.

Passacaglia

TENOR I
How happy the lover,
How easy his chain!
How sweet to discover
He sighs not in vain.

CHORUS
How happy the lover, etc.

Ritornello

SYLVAN & NYMPH
For love ev'ry creature
Is form'd by his nature.
No joys are above
The pleasures of love.

CHORUS
No joys are above.
The pleasures of love.

THREE NYMPHS
In vain are our graces,
In vain are your eyes.
In vain are our graces
If love you despise.
When age furrows faces,
'Tis too late to be wise.

THREE SYLVANS
Then use the sweet blessing
While now in possessing.
No joys are above
The pleasures of love.

THREE NYMPHS
No joys are above
The pleasures of love.

CHORUS
No joys are above
The pleasures of love.

Fourth Act Tune: Air

Arthur commands the sylvans, nymphs and sirens begone and they vanish.
In an attempt to break the spells, he draws his sword and strikes a blow
at the finest tree in the wood. A vision of Emmeline appears from its
trunk, her arm wounded by the blow; it persuades him to lay down his
sword and take her hand. Philidel rushes in, and with a touch of the
wand reveals the vision to be Grimbald in disguise, Arthur then fells
the tree, breaking the spells and opening a safe passage for the Britons
to the Saxon fortress. Grimbald is bound up by Philidel and led out
into daylight.




ACT FIVE

FIRST SCENE
Osmond's spells have been broken and his spirit Grimbald captured. He
decides to release Oswald from the prison in the hope that together they
may at last defeat Arthur.


SECOND SCENE
The Britons march on the Saxon fortress, and are met by Oswald, who
proposes the war be decided in single combat with Arthur. After a very
close fight, in which the two magicians are also pitted against each
other, Arthur finally succeeds in disarming Oswald, but grants him his
life.

Trumpet Tune

A consort of trumpets within, proclaiming Arthur's victory. While they
sound, Arthur and Oswald seem to confer. Arthur commands Oswald to
return to Saxony with his men. Emmeline is restored to Arthur. Merlin
imprisons Osmond and proclaims the triumph of British sovereignty, faith
and love. Merlin waves his wand; the scene changes, and discovers the
British Ocean in a storm. Aeolus in a cloud above: Four Winds hanging,
etc.

AEOLUS
Ye blust'ring brethren of the skies,
Whose breath has ruffled all the wat'ry plain,
Retire, and let Britannia rise
In triumph o'er the main.
Serene and calm, and void of fear,
The Queen of Islands must appear.

Aeolus ascends, and the Four Winds fly off. The scene opens, and
discovers a calm sea, to the end of the house. An island arises, to a
soft tune; Britannia seated in the island, with fishermen at her feet,
etc. The tune changes; the fisher men come ashore, and dance a while;
after which, Pan and a Nereid come on the stage, and sing.

Symphony

NEREID, PAN
Round thy coast, fair nymph of Britain,
For thy guard our waters flow:
Proteus all his herd admitting
On thy green to graze below:
Foreign lands thy fish are tasting;
Learn from thee luxurious fasting.

CHORUS
Round thy coast, fair nymph of Britain, etc.

ALTO, TENOR, BASS
For folded flocks, and fruitful plains,
The shepherd's and the farmer's gains,
Fair Britain all the world outvies;
And Pan, as in Arcadia, reigns
Where pleasure mix'd with profit lies.
Tho' Jason's fleece was fam'd of old,
The British wool is growing gold;
No mines can more of wealth supply:
It keeps the peasants from the cold,
And takes for kings the Tyrian dye.

Enter Comus with peasants.

COMUS
Your hay, it is mow'd and your corn is reap'd,
Your barns will be full and your hovels heap'd.
Come, boys, come,
Come, boys, come,
And merrily roar out our harvest home.

CHORUS OF PEASANTS
Harvest home,
Harvest home,
And merrily roar out our harvest home.

COMUS
We've cheated the parson, we'll cheat him again,
For why shou'd a blockhead have one in ten?
One in ten, one in ten,
For why shou'd a blockhead have one in ten?

PEASANTS
One in ten, one in ten,
For why shou'd a blockhead have one in ten?

COMUS
For prating so long, like a book-learn'd sot,
Till pudding and dumpling are burnt to the pot:
Burnt to pot, burnt to pot,
Till pudding and dumpling are burnt to pot.

PEASANTS
Burnt to pot, burnt to pot,
Till pudding and dumpling are burnt to the pot.

COMUS
We'll toss off our ale till we cannot stand;
And heigh for the honour of old England;
Old England, Old England,
And heigh for the honour of old England.

PEASANTS
Old England, Old England,
And heigh for the honour of old England.

Dance

The dance varied into a round country-dance.

Enter Venus.

VENUS
Fairest isle, all isles excelling,
Seat of pleasure and of love;
Venus here will choose her dwelling,
And forsake her Cyprian grove.
Cupid from his fav'rite nation,
Care and envy will remove;
Jealousy that poisons passion,
And despair that dies for love.
Gentle murmurs, sweet complaining,
Sighs that blow the fire of love;
Soft repulses, Kind disdaining,
Shall be all the pains you prove.
Ev'ry swain shall pay his duty,
Grateful ev'ry nymph shall prove;
And as these excel in beauty,
Those shall be renown'd for love.

SHE
You say, 'tis Love creates the pain,
Of which so sadly you complain,
And yet would fain engage my heart
In that uneasy cruel part;
But how, alas! think you that
I Can bear the wounds of which you die?

HE
'Tis not my passion makes my care,
But your indiff'rence gives despair:
The lusty sun begets no spring
Till gentle show'rs assistance bring;
So Love, that scorches and destroys,
Till kindness aids, can cause no joys.

SHE
Love has a thousand ways to please,
But more to rob us of our ease;
For waking nights and careful days,
Some hours of pleasure he repays;
But absence soon, or jealous fears,
O'erflows the joy with floods of tears.

HE
But one soft moment makes amends
For all the torment that attends.

BOTH
Let us love, let us love and to happiness haste.
Age and wisdom come too fast.
Youth for loving was design'd.

HE
I'll be constant, you be kind.

SHE
You be constant, I'll be kind.

BOTH
Heav'n can give no greater blessing
Than faithful love and kind possessing.

Trumpet Tune (Warlike Consort)

The scene opens above, and discovers the Order of the Garter. Enter
Honour, attended by heroes.

HONOUR
Saint George, the patron of our Isle,
A soldier and a saint,
On this auspicious order smile,
Which love and arms will plant.

CHORUS
Our natives not alone appear
To court the martial prize;
But foreign kings adopted here
Their crowns at home despise.
Our Sov'reign high, 'in awful state,
His honours shall bestow;
and see his sceptred subjects wait
On his commands below.



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