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Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes a Enero de 2014.

Minimalizando la marina

lunes, 16 de septiembre de 2013

Minimalizando la marina

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Jueves, 02 de Enero de 2014 21:25. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Beowulf

martes, 17 de septiembre de 2013

Beowulf

An introduction to Beowulf. Basic facts from The Oxford Companion to English Literature, followed by a video lecture by Grant Voth (Monterey Peninsula College), emphasizing the Christian elements of the poem.


Beowulf,
an Old English poem of 3,182 lines, surviving in a 10th-cent. manuscript. It tells of two major events in the life of the Geatish hero Beowulf: the first when, in his youth, he fights and kills first Grendel, a monster who has been attacking Heorot, the hall of the Danish king Hrothgar, and then Grendel's mother who comes the next night to avenge her son; the second, 50 years later, when Bewoulf, who has for a long time been king of the Geats, fights a dragon who has attacked his people, in a combat in which both Beowulf and the dragon are mortally wounded. The historical period of the poem's events can be dated in the 6th cent. from a reference to Beowulf's king Hygelac by the historian Gregory of Tours; but much of the material of the poem is legendary and paralleled in other Germanic historical-mythological literature in Norse, Old English, and German.

Although it has been suggested that the date of the poem may be nearer to that of its manuscript in the 10th cent., the poem is generally dated in the 8th cent., perhaps in its second quarter, at a time when England was being won over from paganism to Christianity. This date is taken to account for the strong thread of Christian commentary which runs thorugh the poem, seemingly inappropriate to the date of its historical events. The degree of Christian morality inherent in the poem has been one of the two principal critical talking points about Beowulf; the second is the consistency or otherwise of the poem's construction. W. P. Ker (in Epic and Romance, 1896) regarded the monster stories as insignificant and the peripheral historical allusions as weighty and important. This view was most famously opposed by Tolkien in "The Monsters and the Critics" (1936) where he argued that it was precisely the superhuman opposition of the heathen monsters that elevated the poem to heroic stature, and that all the other allusions were related directly to the transient grandeur of Beowulf's life and battles with the monsters.

Beowulf is much the most important poem in Old English and it is the first major poem in a European vernacular language. It is remarkable for its sustained grandeur of tone and for the brilliance of its style, both in its rather baroque diction and in the association of the elements of its plot.


Ed. F. Klaeber (1922), etc.; C. L. Wrenn (1953, rev. W. F. Bolton, 1973); trans. E. T. Donaldson (1966); G. N. Gammonsway and then others in Beowulf and Its Analogues (1968); R. W. Chambers, Beowulf: An  Introduction (3rd edn with supplement by C. L. Wrenn, 1959); L. E. Nicholson (ed.), An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism (1963). Heaney's new translation appeared in 1999.






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Now a longer introduction, from A Critical History of English Literature, by David Daiches (London: Secker and Warburg, 1960). Followed by Michael Wood's documentary In Search of Beowulf.
   

—oOo—
 

 

Of surviving Anglo-Saxon literature, that which brings us most closely into contact with the Germanic origins of the invaders is the heroic poetry, which still bears traces not only of the pre-Christian heroic society of the continental Saxons and others, but also of that community of subject which linked these early English with the wider civilization of Germania. This is written in the language we know as Old English or Anglo-Saxon, which is essentially the English language in an earlier stage of its development, with inflections which have since disappeared, a relatively small vocabulary from which many words have since been lost (though some which are lost to standard English remain in altered from in Scots and in regional English dialects), and significant differences between, for example, the West Saxon dialect of the south and the Anglian dialect of Northumbria. The verse is alliterative and stressed, without rhyme, each line containing four stressed syllables and a varying number unstressed. There is a definite pause (caesura) between the two halves of each line, with two stresses in each half.

We geascodon   Eormenrices
wylfenne ge  þoht;   ahte wide folc
Gotena rices;   þæt wæs grim cyning.
Sæt secg monig   sorgum gebunden,
wean on wenan, wyscte geneahhe
þæt þæs cynerices   ofercumen wære.


To the superficial eye this looks very far removed from modern English; and in a sense it is. (The letter þ—"thorn"—has the sound of "th"). But a literal translation helps to bring out its relation to modern English:

We have learned of Eormanric's
wolfish disposition; he held wide dominion
in the realm of the Goths. That was a cruel king.
Many a man sat bound in sorrows,
anticipating woe, often wishing
that his kingdom were overcome.


Some thirty thousand lines of Anglo-Saxon poetry have survived, nearly all of it contained in four manuscripts (1), and we have no reason to believe that the older, nonreligious poetry that survives is more than a casually preserved fragment of what was written. Specifically religious poetry might be expected to have earned ecclesiastical care and preservation, but the heroic poetry which connects more directly with the Germanic origins of the Anglo-Saxons could not be expected to arouse any special ecclesiastical interest even when it had been superficially purged of its pagan feeling and in some degree Christianized in thought. The conversion of the English peoples began with the arrival of Augustine in Kent in 597; he had been sent by Gregory the Great with a band of monks in order to achieve his missionary task. But, though Æthelbert, king of Kent, was duly converted to Christianity and Augustine was soon able to establish the seat of his bishopric at Canterbury, the permanent establishment of Christianity through England proved to be a much lengthier task and one which required the active intervention of Celtic missionaries from Ireland and Scotland. Differences between the customs and practices of the Irish Church—which had remained somewhat isolated from Rome—and the Roman Church, which had sponsored Augustine's mission, made for certain difficulties between those English ecclesiastics who looked to Rome and those who looked to Iona and to Ireland, and these were not resolved until the Synod of Whitby in 663 (2); but it is sufficient for the student of literature to note that the development of English Christianity was not continuous but sporadic from the first century and more, with certain notable setbacks such as the defeat and death of the Christian Edwin, king of Northumbria, at the hands of the pagan Prenda, king of Mercia, in 632, which meant the disappearance of the Christian Church in Northumbria until its re-establishment by Aidan and his followers from Iona. If even the external ecclesiastical organization was thus unstable in the early centuries, it is not difficult to see how traces of pagan thought in varying kinds of relation to Christianity persisted for some time after the nominal conversion of the English.

Unfortunately, though much is known in general about the mythology of the Germanic and the Norse peoples, we have very little definite information about the heathen background of Old English culture. Though we can drawn analogies between what we know of Scandinavian heathendom and what we surmise of its Old English equivalent, the fact remains that the common origin of the two was was already far in the past by the time we find the Anglo-Saxons in England. Old English place names give some indication of pre-Christian activity associated with certain localities in Anglo-Saxon England, but tell us nothing of the larger patterns of attitude and belief which are of the most relevance for a study of the literature. That Anglo-Saxon heroic poetry, even as we have it, is the product of a pagan heroic society and in social tone and general mood bears evidence of its origins, can hardly be disputed. But debate on the degree to which Beowulf, for example, has been modified by a relatively sophisticated Latin culture—not only by Christian sentiment but, as has been claimed, by a Virgilian tradition,—cannot be resolved without knowledge of more details than it seems likely we shall ever possess about primitive Anglo-Saxon beliefs. On the whole, it would seem likely that Beowulf and such other remains of early English heroic poetry as survive are closer to their pagan origins in mood and purpose thn is sometimes believed.

Though there are difficulties in placing the earliest extant Anglo-Saxon poetry in its cultural context, we can take some comfort from the knowledge that what has survived of Anglo-Saxon poetry, fragmentary though it is and an arbitrary sample though it may be, is of earlier date than any extant poetry of the other Germanic literatures—of Old High German or Old Norse, for example. Anglo-Saxon heroic poetry is the nearest we can get to the oral pagan literature of teh Heroic Age of Germania. The stressed alliterative verse of Anglo-Saxon poetry is clearly the product of an oral court minstrelsy; it was intented to be recited by the scop, the itinerant minstrel who frequented the halls of kings and chiefs and sometimes found continuous service with one master. One of the earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon poems, Widsith, is the autobiographical record of such a scop. The poem as we have it is probably not homogeneous—some of the lines seem to be later interpolations—but the core of the work finely reflects the heroic attitude to the bard's function and gives us a fascinating glimpse of the Germanic world as it appeared to the imagination of the Anglo-Saxons. The text we have of the poem is in the Exeter Book, and is thus tenth-century and in the West Saxon dialect; the poem—which must have been originally composed in Northumbria—dates from the late seventh or early eight century, though parts of it must be older even than that. Widsith, the "far wanderer," tells of his travels throughout the Germanic world and mentions the many rulers he has visited. Many of the characters he mentions figure in other poems—in Beowulf, for example, and in the fragmentary stories of Finn and Waldhere. The princes he claims to have visited cover virtually the whole Germanic world and their lifetimes extend over two hundred years. He was, he tells us, with Eormanric (the Gothic king who died about 370): "likewise I was in Italy with Ælfwine," he tells us elsewhere in the poem, and
Ælfwine is Alboin, king of the Lombards, who died about 572 (and who is, incidentally, the latest character to be mentioned in any Germanic heroic poem). The poem thus cannot be true autobiography. It is, however, something much more interesting than that: it is a view of Germanic history and geography as it appeared to a Northumbrian bard of the seventh century drawing on the traditions of his people. What strikes us most forcibly is its catholicity: praise is meted out impartially to Huns, Goths, Burgundians, Franks, Danes, Swedes, Angles, Wends, Saxons, Langobards, and many others. "Ætla [Attila] ruled the Huns, Eormanric the Goths, Becca the Bannings, Gifica the Burgundians, . . . Theodric ruled the Franks, thyle the Rondings, Breoca the Brondings, Billing the Wærnas. Oswine ruled the Eowan, and Gefwulf the Jutes, Fin Folcwalding the race of the Frisians.  . . . Offa ruled Angel, Alewih the Danes; he was the most courageous of all these men, but he did not excel Offa in his mighty deeds." We are given here a bird's eye view of the subject matter of Germanic heroic poetry; and we are reminded that the heroes of that poetry were not regional or national but common to all Germania.

Widsith may be primitive stuff as poetry—indeed, the first catalogue of rulers in the poem is cast in the form of a very early early type of genealogical verse and may well date from the beginning of the sixth century or even from before the coming of the Anglo-Saxons to Britain—but it is this very primitive quality which is of most interest. In its combination of historical memories and heroic traditions it shows us something of the historical foundations of heroic poetry and reminds us of the nature and extent of that wide world of Germania which the author of Beowulf was equally to take for granted as familiar to his audience and thus as suitable material for allusion and analogy. The whole world of barbarian wanderings and conquests—the world which collided with, in a sense destroyed, and in a sense was absorbed by, the Roman Empire—is here sketched out. And that world provides the orchestration, as it were, for Beowulf.

Beowulf holds a special position in Anglo-Saxon literature—indeed, in older Germanic literature as a whole—because it is the only complete extant epic of its kind in an ancient Germanic language. Nowhere else is a traditional theme handled in a long narrative poem against a background which reveals to us the culture and society of the Heroic Age of the Germanic peoples. Whether there were in fact other Anglo-Saxon epics, which have not survived, is a question which may well be debated forever; but the fact remains that Beowulf survives in a single manuscript, which was damaged by fire before it was ever studied or transcribed. If it is impossible to determine conclusively whether it was the Anglo-Saxon epic or simply an Anglo-Saxon epic (though it should be mentioned  that modern opinion inclines to the belief that it was the only poem of its kind composed in Anglo-Saxon times), it can at least be said that it is a poem technically impressive in its handling of narrative verse, remarkably successful in rendering that combination of heroic idealism and somber fatalism which seems to have been part of the Germanic temper, yet structurally weak and providing insufficient unity of tone or organization to hold together effectively the two central episodes and the many digressions which make up the whole. Though the ultimate origin of the story is folklore (working, as folklore does, on history), and behind the poem probably lies a variety of popular lays, the poem as we have it is generally agreed to be the work of a single author writing in the first half of the eighth century, though a powerful case has been made out for its having been composed orally by a heathen considerably earlier, with the Christian references (of which there are about seventy) representing later revision or interpolations. Future scholars may well return to this latter view.

Beowulf falls into two main parts. The first deals with the visit of Beowulf, nephew of King Hygelac of the Geats (the Geats probably occupied what is now southern Sweden), to the court of King Hrothgar of Denmark. The aging Hrothgar had long been plagued by a man-eating monster, Grendel, who came regularly to the king's great hall of Heorot to prey on his warriors, and it was to slay the monster that Beowulf came to Denmark. He fights with and mortally wounds Grendel in Heorot, and when Grendel's mother comes to take revenge for the death of her son he follows her to her underwater home and after a desperate struggle slays her too. Beowulf and his companions then leave for home, laden with honors and presents from the Danish king. The second part takes place fifty years later, when Beowulf has long been king of the Geats. A dragon, guarding a hoard of treasure, has been disturbed, and has been going out to wreak slaughter throughout the land. Beowulf, to save his country from the dragon's ravages, undertakes to fight it, and though he succeeds in slaying it he is himself mortally wounded in the struggle. The poem ends with an account of Beowulf's funeral: his body is burned on an elaborate funeral pyre, amid the lamentations of his warriors.

There are historical elements in Beowulf, though they are seen through the folk memory and the folk imagination, in combination with a variety of marvelous legends. There are also onumerous digressions and allusions which make it clear that the author is taking for granted among his readers (or auditors) knoweledge of a whole body of stories concerning Germanic heroies. In the feast of Heorot celebrating Beowulf's victory over Grendel we are told how the minstrel recited the story of Hnæf's death at the hands of the sons of Finn and the subsequent vengeance taken on Finn by the Danes, whose leader
Hnæf had been. Part of the minstrel's recital is given at considerable length in Beowulf, but it can have had little meaning to anyone without a knowledge of the whole story. We can in some dgree reconstruct the sequence of events with the help of a fragmentary Anglo-Saxon lay, The Fight at Finnsburh, which appears to deal with other evens in the same story, told on a different scale. Other stories are referred to in Beowulf more casually, and part of its interest lies in the thread of Germantic story that runs, through allusions, analogies, and references, through the poem. Though it is an Anglo-Saxon poem, composed in England, it harks back to the period of Germanic history before the Anglo-Saxon invasion and shows no bias toward English heroes. Geats,
Danes, and Swedes occupy the foreground of the narrative, and emerging briefly from the background are a number of figures whom we also meet in Scandinavian tradition and in the poetry and legends of a variety of Teutonic peoples.

On the surface, Beowulf is a heroic poem, celebrating the exploits of a great warrior whose character and actions are held up as a model of aristocratic virtue. It reflects the ideals of that state of society we call the Heroic Age, and its resemblance to the Odyssey in this respect has often been noted. The grave courtesy with which men of rank are received and dismissed, the generosity of rulers and the loyalty of retainers, the thirst for fame through the achievement of deeds of courage and endurance, the solemn boasting of warriors before and after performance, the interest in genealogies and pride in a noble heredity—all these things are to be found in both poems. But Beowulf is also a record of marvels rather different in kind from those encountered by Ulysses in his adventures, and, further, its Anglo-Saxon gravity is reinforced by the introduction of Christian elements which do not, however, seriously weaken the pagan atmosphere of the poem, for they are voncerned with large elemental facts such as God's creation and governance of the world and such Old Testament stories as that of Cain's murder of Abel. If the general atmosphere of Beowulf can be called seriously pagan, with the seriousness deepened and the pagan heroic ideal enlarged by Christian elements, it is certainly not uncivilized, though the civilization it reflects is primitive enough. There is a genuine ideal of nobility underlying its adventure stories.

It is the splendid gravity of the poem that falls more impressively on modern ears. Sometimes in a single line the poem conveys atmosphere and mood to perfection. We are given an acount of Beowulf's reception at Heorot, and his confident words before his warriors lay themselves down to sleep. Then:

                           Com on warne niht
scrið (3) an sceadu-3en3a.   Sceotend swaefon,
þa þæt horn-reced         healdan scoldon,
ealle buton anum. . . .
    Ða com of more   under mist-hleoþum
3rendel 3on3an, 3odes yrre bær. . . .
                  
                            Came on the dark night
gliding, the shadowy prowler. The warriors slept
who were to hold the antlered hall,
all but one. . . .
    Then from the moor under the misty cliffs
came Grendel marching, he bore God's anger.



The tone is not uniform, but the poem is at its most effective in its moments of slow terror or suspense, and in its more elegiac moods. It has neither the larger epic conception of the Odyssey nor the fine polish of a "secondary" epic such as the Aeneid. But it is an impressive, if uneven, performance, carrying us successfully into the Anglo-Saxon heroic imagination, with its emphasis on solemn courtesy, generosity, fidelity, and sheer endurance. And underlying all is the sense of the shortness of life and the passing away of all things except the fame a man leaves behind.

There is little else surviving of Anglo-Saxon literature which makes direct contact with the older heroic view of life. Deor, an interesting poem of forty-two lines, is the complaint of a minstrel who, after years of service to his lord, has been supplanted by a rival, Heorrenda. He comforts himself by recounting the trials of Germanic heroes, all of which were eventually overcome. After each reference to the troubles of some famous character there occurs the refrain

Þæs ofereode,     þisses swa mæg.
That was surmounted; so may this be

                     
We get fascinating glimpses of figures famous in Germanic legend—Weland the smith, Theodoric the Ostrogoth, Eormanric the Goth, and others—and of the troubles they suffered or caused; but the main interest of the poem lies in its combination of this kind of subject matter with a personal, elegiac note, not common in Anglo-Saxon poetry, though found even more intensely in The Wanderer and The Seafarer, to be discussed later.




 
 




Notes

(1) These are: (1) MS Cotton Vitellius A XV in the British Museum, which contains Beowulf, Judith, and three prose works. (2) The Junius Manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (MS Bodleian Junius 11), which contains Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, and Christ and Satan. (3). The Exeter Book, given by Bishop Leofric to Exeter Cathedral, containing Christ, Juliana, The Wanderer, The Seafarer, Widsith, Deor, and many other short pieces. (4). The Vercelli Book, preserved in the cathedral library at Vercelli, in northern Italy, which contains Andreas, The Fates of the Apostles, Address of the Soul to the Body, The Dream of the Rood, and Elene.

(2) Not 664, as is traditionally held. Bede dates it 664, but he begins his year in September, and as the Synod can be shown to have been held in late September or early October, this would mean 663 in our dating.

(3) ð, like þ, has the sound of "th". Ð is the capital form of ð.


—oOo—






—oOo—



Some additional materials:

Beowulf the Legendary Geatish Hero (Clash of the Gods series). YouTube (DiscoveryHaven) 11 July 2013.*
     http://youtu.be/-ta6v0GnPW4

In Search of the Dark Ages. Michael Wood documentary video series.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BetL06FPG9Q&list=PL8AA4A963265F0364
    2013

 




The Wanderer   

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Mar para una

martes, 17 de septiembre de 2013

Mar para una

Mar para una by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Mar para una, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Jueves, 02 de Enero de 2014 21:27. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Por no hablar por hablar

miércoles, 18 de septiembre de 2013

Por no hablar por hablar

Pongo un comentario sobre el origen del lenguaje en el blog de J. M. Bermúdez de Castro (Reflexiones de un primate), en el artículo Lenguaje y cerebro:

Aún no se sabe cómo funcionan a nivel orgánico algunos de los mecanismos básicos del lenguaje, como la capacidad simbólica, o la capacidad de crear lo que Mark Turner llama mezclas de ámbito doble, símbolos complejos. (Sobre las asociaciones mentales y conexiones cerebrales, ver mi artículo Conectando con Heráclito el Oscuro). Por tanto si aún no sabemos completamente qué es el lenguaje y qué lo hace capaz de funcionar en un cerebro, menos aún podemos saber cuándo se originó. Por otra parte, la base orgánica de estos procesos es obviamente cerebral, y las conexiones cerebrales fosilizan mal, digamos. La anatomía de laringe, oído e incluso lóbulos cerebrales sólo ofrece datos indirectos; lo mismo las deducciones a partir de otros símbolos complejos que sí pervivan o dejen rastros (como las pinturas o las herramientas). La investigación tiene mucho terreno que rellenar entre la certidumbre práctica de que algo sí hablaban todos los homínidos, en el sentido de producir señales vocales, y la incertidumbre sobre QUÉ DECÍAN. Porque siendo el lenguaje una forma en evolución, no aparece de golpe en la cabeza: se desarrolla, y se vuelve complejo a lo largo de miles y miles de años. Hablar, todo el mundo habla a su manera, incluso las gaviotas por no decir los loros. Ahora bien, lo importante no es hablar por hablar, sino LO QUE SE DICE cuando se habla. Y eso requiere no sólo una evolución de la especie, sino también de la cultura desarrollada gracias a esa misma capacidad lingüística.




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Jueves, 02 de Enero de 2014 21:28. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Evolución


The Short Oxford History of English Literature

miércoles, 18 de septiembre de 2013

The Short Oxford History of English Literature

El manual de Andrew Sanders The Short Oxford History of English Literature está en PDF en esta dirección (una página árabe):

http://lanquiz.org/assets/pdf-books/lanquiz.org__the_short_oxford_history_of_english_literature.pdf

El libro tiene 678 páginas, y el PDF 396 (Está todo el texto principal aunque faltan las bibliografías e índices finales). Es la primera edición, de 1994, luego revisada.

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Viendo un barco a lo lejos

miércoles, 18 de septiembre de 2013

Viendo un barco a lo lejos

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Jueves, 02 de Enero de 2014 21:36. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Una opinión para la tele

jueves, 19 de septiembre de 2013

Una opinión para la tele

Suspendida, o suspensa, la inauguración del año académico con el Príncipe y el ministro Wert en la Universidad de Zaragoza.

 No es que me guste mucho salir en la tele, así que es una suerte que mis apariciones sean tan pocas. Hoy a la salida de la Facultad estaban haciendo unas entrevistas para Atlas TV (¿?) y me preguntan qué me parece que la Universidad haya suspendido el acto de inauguración del año académico, al que venían el Príncipe y el abyectado ministro Wert. Primera noticia, les digo.

(Hay que decir que primero se eligió la Universidad de Zaragoza para inaugurar el año académico por considerarla "poco conflictiva", y que luego los distintos colectivos anti-PP han promovido huelgas, pitadas y protestas. Lo de "no conflictiva" no sé de dónde saldría pues aquí lo de la "marea verde" de protesta contra la política educativa del gobierno y los recortes, etc., tuvo un éxito masivo).

(Y hay que preguntarse en qué pensaba el Rector cuando le dijeron lo de inaugurar el año académico aquí. ¿Les avisaría de lo que hay, o diría unas frases así rectorales de "es una alegría y un privilegio para la Universidad de Zaragoza étece, étece..."?).

En fin, lo que les digo a la TV.

Que me parece fatal, eso de anunciarla y luego enmendalla. Que si se ha tomado una decisión, que habría que mantenerla y no echarse atrás por las protestas.

¿Y si hay desórdenes...?—me dicen.

Entonces es que hay que reconocer que estamos en una universidad pobrecica, y con pocos medios. Y, por otra parte, estamos en una Universidad con las actitudes divididas, porque, ¿qué sentido tiene que se anuncie oficialmente la apertura del curso con las autoridades, y que a la vez se proclame en el arco de entrada de la Universidad que vamos a recibir a Wert con una sonora pitada? Eso es la fachada pública de la Universidad, y si el Rector no manda a los servicios de limpieza que quiten esa pancarta, será porque le parece bien. En todo caso, a mí me parece vergonzoso. Esta Universidad no sabe lo que quiere (—y me refiero no a la universidad en la que mucha gente distinta quiere cosas distintas, sino al Rectorado, que es quien debería dar una imagen pública. No puedes invitar a las autoridades a la vez que anuncias en primera plana que vas a montar el pitote en la inauguración. O sí, pero entonces es que no te conocen bien las autoridades.  Y si esa pancarta que preside la entrada a la Ciudad Universitaria no es una proclama oficial, sino basura, pues eso, que la limpien. Un mínimo.

Y aún les iba a decir lo que pasa en esta universidad cada huelga general, cerrada por los sindicalistas a la fuerza, te guste o no, sin que el Rector mande abrirla por dignidad intelectual. Pero me corto, que ni les interesa ahora, ni le interesa eso a nadie en el público. Y menos aún en esta universidad.

La Dra. Penas, que iba conmigo, por su cuenta les dice que lo de la suspensión es una medida muy práctica que puede evitar conflictos, pero que por otra parte es una indicación muy clara de que algo no está funcionando bien.


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Jueves, 02 de Enero de 2014 21:38. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Universidad


La Quête

sábado, 21 de septiembre de 2013

La Quête



Del musical The Man from la Mancha. Se la oí a Jacques Brel.

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:39. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Músicas mías


Flying Over the Moon

sábado, 21 de septiembre de 2013

Flying over the Moon

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:48. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Entrevista con Ludmila

domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013

Entrevista con Ludmila

Con Ludmila coincidimos en París, en el congreso de la ENN. Va a editar un volumen en torno a la idea de Semiosfera, y hemos colaborado un poquillo allí con la Dra. Penas. Pero además me propone Ludmila una entrevista sobre los nuevos paradigmas de la narratología, para la revista Enthymema que hace un seguimiento o aftermath del congreso de París.  Y así emprendemos una conversación por Skype, ella en Rusia central y yo aquí, para darle forma al diálogo que publicaremos. Conversación en la que entre otros muchos temas sale esta cuestión de cómo los nuevos medios complementan a los congresos tradicionales—es la primera vez que empleo Skype para algo relacionado con el trabajo, prueba quizá de que los medios nos desbordan y que nos ofrecen muchas más posibilidades de las que somos capaces de aprovechar. Quién sabe cómo colaboraremos dentro de cinco años, igual han pasado los congresos a un lugar mucho más razonable, y tenemos una red de conversaciones y sitios web en su lugar. Cabe la posibilidad, desde luego, de usarlos mucho más creativamente de lo que solemos hacer ahora mismo, con la inercia de las costumbres adquiridas. Tememos la deslocalización que nos ofrece la web, y la ubicuidad absoluta de todo el mundo al alcance de un clic.



Mi conferencia de París

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:58. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Trabajos


Curtains 2

domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013

Curtains 2

Curtains 2 by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Curtains 2, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:59. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Gaviotillas aprendiendo la lección

jueves, 19 de septiembre de 2013

Gaviotillas aprendiendo la lección

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 22:12. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Natya Shastra

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

Natya Shastra

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"Drama." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*
2013
"Natya Shastra." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*
2013
Bharat Muni (Attr.). Natya Shastra. Ancient Sanskrit treatise on drama. (c. 200 BC-200 AD).
Abhinavagupta. Abhinavabharati. Commentary on Bharata's Natya Shastra.
Bharat Muni (Attr.). Natya Shastra. Trans. Manomohan Ghosh. 1951. Internet Archive.
2013

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Suicide Warriors

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

Suicide Warriors

 

Suicide Warriors
By Richard A. Koenigsberg

(From a call for papers by the Library of Social  Science).


Douglas Haig was the British General who planned and executed the Battle of the Somme, which began on July 1, 1916. Visiting the battlefield on March 31, 1917, Haig reflected (De Groot, 1989) upon the hundreds of thousands of British casualties:

Credit must be paid to the splendid young officers who were able time and time again to attack these tremendous positions…To many it meant certain death, and all must have known that before they started.

Modris Eksteins observes that the “victimized crowd of attackers” moving into no man’s land has become the “supreme image” of the First World War. Attackers moved forward, usually without seeking cover, and were “mowed down in rows, with the mechanical efficiency of a scythe, like so many blades of grass.”
A German machine-gunner wrote of his experience of a British attack on the first day of the Somme: “We were surprised to see them walking. The officers went in front. When we started firing, we just had to load and reload. They went down in the hundreds. You didn’t have to aim, we just fired into them.”
The experience of this machine-gunner was not unusual; it was the norm. John Buchan described the first day of the offensive at the Somme in his pamphlet, The Battle of the Somme (1916):

The British moved forward in line after line, dressed as if on parade; not a man wavered or broke ranks; but minute by minute the ordered lines melted away under the deluge of high explosives, shrapnel, rifle, and machine-gun fire. The troops shed their blood like water for the liberty of the world.

Contemplating the nature of “heroic death,” Haig cited a speech by the Moghul Emperor Babur to his troops on March 16, 1527 (De Groot, 1989) which, he said, “is curiously appropriate now":

The most high God has been propitious to us: If we fall in the field, we die the death of martyrs. If we survive, we rise victorious the avengers of the cause of God.

This, Haig claimed, is the “root matter of the present war.”
Like Muslim warriors who died for Allah, British soldiers died for Great Britain. Hopefully, England would rise victorious. If not, the soldiers would have died “the death of martyrs.”
What is the difference between the Islamic warrior who died for Allah and the British soldier who died for God and country in the First World War? The magnitude of slaughter. In his report of August 22, 1919—Features of the War—Haig summarized British casualties, stating that they were “no larger than to be expected.” The total British casualties in all theaters of war, killed, wounded, missing and prisoners—including native troops—are approximately three million (3,076,388).
British casualties on the first day of the Battle of the Somme were 20,000 dead and 40,000 wounded—probably more casualties suffered by any army in any war on any single day. Clare Tisdale wrote about her experiences as a nurse working at a casualty clearing station during the battle:

We practically never stopped. I was up for seventeen nights before I had a night in bed. A lot of the boys had legs blown off, or hastily amputated at the front-line. These boys were the ones who were in the greatest pain, and I very often used to have to hold the stump up in the ambulance for the whole journey, so that it wouldn't bump on the stretcher.
The worse case I saw - and it still haunts me - was of a man being carried past us. It was at night, and in the dim light I thought that his face was covered with a black cloth. But as he came nearer, I was horrified to realize that the whole lower half of his face had been completely blown off and what had appeared to be a black cloth was a huge gaping hole. It was the only time I nearly fainted.

Horrific experiences like those reported by Nurse Tisdale occurred millions of times during the First World War. Historians don’t focus on the dead and mutilated human bodies as much as they do upon the political machinations that led to and continued the war. Despite its massive destructiveness and wastefulness, many historians write about the war as if it was about rational “interests”: the “great powers in contention” (Michael Vlahos, personal correspondence), struggling for dominance.
Given the volume of research and number of books written about the First World War, do we really understand why it occurred and kept going? One of the best historians of the war—Jay Winters—concludes his magnificent video series (The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century, 1996) with humility—in a tone of baffled bewilderment. Summing up, he says: “The war solved no problems. Its effects, both immediate and indirect, were either negative or disastrous. Morally subversive, economically destructive, socially degrading, confused in its course, futile in its result, it is the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict.”
The First World War was not generated as a form of primitive aggression, but was undertaken in the name of “civilization.” People died and killed in the name of—for the sake of—their societies. Lives were sacrificed to entities with names such as “France” and “Germany” and “Great Britain.” These “symbolic objects” justified slaughter and made it seem meaningful.
We have not adequately interrogated the slaughter that occurred in the First World War: this monumental episode of destruction and self-destruction. Why did Generals persist in deploying a futile battle strategy that resulted in the deaths of millions of human beings?
We turn our eyes away. We don’t want to encounter the reality of what occurred: What human societies did to human beings: the massive, pathological destruction that was generated by civilization. In the face of such horror, historians lose their resolve: “The Generals were stupid and incompetent.” “They underestimated the effectiveness of the machine-gun.”
Arriving home from the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, President Woodrow Wilson set about the task of convincing the Congress to ratify the treaty and to approve American participation in the League of Nations. Wilson toured the country to canvass support in favor of both the treaty and the League, giving one of his final addresses as President in support of the League in Pueblo, Colorado, on Sept. 15, 1919.
He spoke to his audience about “our pledges to the men that lie dead in France.” Americans went over there, he said, not to prove the prowess of America, but to ensure that “there never was such a war again.” His “clients,” Wilson said, were the next generation of children. He wanted to “redeem his pledge” that they should “not be sent on a similar errand.”
Wilson told his audience that again and again during his tour of the United States, mothers who lost their sons in France came up to him, took his hand, and while shedding tears said, “God bless you, Mr. President.” Why, he asks, should these ladies ask God to bless him? It was he that created the situation that led to the death of their sons, who ordered their sons overseas and consented to them being put in battle lines where “death was certain.”
Where death was certain! As General Haig put it: soldiers who attacked at battles like the Somme “knew before they started” that their actions meant “certain death.” Why this willingness—on the part of men like Wilson, Haig and numerous other national leaders—to put young men in situations where death was a certainty?
Haig claimed that three million British casualties were worth the cost because the issues involved in the “stupendous struggle” were “far greater than those concerned in any war in recent history. Civilization itself was at stake.”
Why, Wilson asks, did the mothers of young men who died in the First World War weep upon his hand and “call down the blessings of God upon me?” Because they agreed that their boys had died for something that “vastly transcends any of the immediate and palpable objects of the war.” These men were “crusaders.” By virtue of their sacrifices—giving the “gift of their life”—these men “saved the liberty of the world.”
As Islamic warriors died for Allah and British soldiers sacrificed their lives for civilization, so did American soldiers die in order to “save the liberty of the world.”
But Germany also fought the First World War in the name of civilization. In his study, God, Germany and Britain in the Great War (1989), Arlie Hoover conveys how Germans conceived of their superiority. One pastor explained that the German nation surpassed every nation in “extolling the command of duty.” As compared with the British who practiced the “sin of materialism,” Germany embraced idealistic values. For the German, nothing was greater than heroism: the willingness to “lay down one’s life for one’s brother.”
Hitler in Mein Kampf (1925) stated that the most precious blood in the First World War had “sacrificed itself joyfully” in the faith that it was “preserving the independence and freedom of the fatherland.” More than once, Hitler said, thousands and thousands of young Germans had stepped forward to “sacrifice their young lives freely and joyfully on the altar of the beloved fatherland.”
One can say Allah or the British Empire or the spirit of France or the German fatherland or the liberty of the world. What is the nature of this relationship linking sacrificial death and devotion to the sacred ideals of civilization?
We have yet to understand the massive political violence that characterized the Twentieth Century. History books record what occurred—but are unable to explain why. Or perhaps it is more accurate to say that we have failed to interrogate the central variables that generated slaughter. Terms like “civilization” and “society” and “the country” are taken for granted.
The objects or entities to which these terms refer are present within each episode of political violence. However, we don’t analyze these objects or entities. They are accepted and embraced as constituting the essence of reality. Political history is dominated by reified entities endowed with a will—and possessing the capacity to act. It is Great Britain that performs acts of violence, or France, or Germany or America.
Many people feel that dying and killing in the name of Allah makes no sense. Suicide bombings seem fantastic. Allah is just a word to us—an empty construct. Why would human beings die and kill in the name of “Allah”?
However, when we discuss people dying and killing in the name of “France,” “Germany” or “Great Britain”—this seems to make perfect sense. To this day, we believe in the reality of these entities. We don’t understand the First World War—from which 20th Century political history descends—because we have not interrogated our relationship to the objects in whose names slaughter occurs.
Richard A. Koenigsberg, Ph.D
Director, Library of Social Science
rak@libraryofsocialscience.com

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:31. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Cómo somos


The Dark Ages of Greece

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

The Dark Ages of Greece


Lectures by Donald Kagan at Yale, on archaic Greek culture, and on  the Dark Ages in the Homeric poems:



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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:33. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Historia


A Rose Arose

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

A rose arose

A rose arose by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
A rose arose, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:34. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Donald Kagan on the Origins of War

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

Donald Kagan: The Origins of War

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:35. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Historia


Pasando la ITV

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

Pasando la ITV

All That Fall by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
All That Fall, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

Hale, hoy pasamos la ITV hasta el 2015. Para entonces ya tendrá mi moto más de veinticinco años. Si no los tiene ya. Claro que no me llega ni a la mitad a mí. De momento aún pasamos la ITV, pero cualquier día nos desguazan.

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A Companion to Roman Love Elegy

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

A Companion to Roman Love Elegy

Es un libro que me cita (soy "J. A. G. Landa"). En la página 412, y en la 423.  Puede comprobarse en Google Books:

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Gold, Barbara K., ed. A Companion to Roman Love Elegy. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
  

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:37. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Me enlazan


Tesis sobre robinsones

viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013

Tesis sobre robinsones

Una tesis sobre náufragos colonizadores (de Defoe a Coetzee) en la que me citan:
 
 
Castaways and colonists from Crusoe to Coetzee
 
SUSANNA JOHANNA SMIT-MARAIS
 
11660139
 
Thesis submitted
in fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree Doctor ofPhilosophy in English 
at the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-WestUniversity
 
November 2012
 
Bueno, para más precisión, citan a Onega y García Landa.  Aquí está la tesis en PDF.

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Sábado, 04 de Enero de 2014 23:38. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Me enlazan


Edgar Allan Poe: The Sancturary of the Disengaged Soul

domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013

Edgar Allan Poe: The Sanctuary of the Disengaged Soul


poe

From A History of American Literature, by Richard Gray: 
 



However much they differ . . . writers like Cooper and Sedgwick do have common interests and ideas, derived from the basic currency of Western myth: a belief in mobility, a concern with the future, a conviction that, whatever problems it may have, America is still a land of possibility. The counter-myth to this is the myth of the South: preoccupied with place and confinement rather than space and movement, obsessed with the guilt and burden of the past, riddled with doubt, unease, and the sense that, at their best, human beings are radically limited and, at their worst, tortured, grotesque, or evil. And if Cooper was the founding father of the Western myth in literature, even though he never actually saw the prairie, then, even more queerly, Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) was the founding father of the Southern myth, although he was actually born in Boston and hardly ever used Southern settings in his fiction or his poetry. What makes Poe a founder of Southern myth, typically of him, is not so much a matter of the literal as of the imaginative. "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839) is set in an anonymous landscape, or rather dreamscape, but it has all the elements that were later to characterize Southern Gothic: a great house and family falling into decay and ruin, a feverish, introspective hero half in love with death, a pale, ethereal heroine who seems and then is more dead than alive, rumors of incest and guilt—and, above all, the sene that the past haunts the present and that there is evil in the world and it is strong. Typically of Poe, who turned his own life into drama, this Southern dimension is also a matter of self-consciousness: the causes he espoused, the opinions he expressed, the stories he told about himself. "I am a Virginian," he wrote in 1842, "at least I call myself one, for I have resided all my life, until within the last few days, in Richmond."

Despite all his aristocratic sneers at the bourgeois dullness and correctness of Boston, and his complaints about Southerners "being ridden to death by New-England," he was actually born there. He left at the age of two to be raised by a Richmond merchant, John Allan. It was from John Allan that, by choice, Poe took his middle name. And it was with the Allans that Poe lived in England from 1815 to 1820. Poe then entered the University of Virginia in 1826, but relations between him and Allan were by now severly strained. Allan wanted Poe to prepare for a legal career. Poe, however, left university for Boston, where he began a literay career with his first volume of poetry, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827). Published anonymously and at his own expense, it went unnoticed. But it clearly announced his poetic intentions: aims and ambitions that were later to be articulated in such seminal essays as "The Philosophy of Composition" (1846) and "The Poetic Principle" (1850) and further put into practice in the later volumes, Poems by E. A. Poe (1831) and The Raven and Other Poems (1845). The poet, Poe wrote in his essays, should be concerned, first and last, with the "circumscribed Eden" of his own dreams. "It is the desire of the moth for the star," Poe says of the poetic impulse in "The Poetic Principle." "Inspired by an ecstatic prescience of the glories beyond the grave," he goes on, "we struggle, by multiform combinations among the things and thoughts of Time, to attain a portion of that Loveliness whose very elements, perhaps, appertain to eternity alone." According to this prescription, the poet's task is to weave a tapestry of talismanic signs and sounds in order to draw, or rather subdue, the reader into sharing the world beyond phenomenal experience. Poems make nothing happen in any practical, immediate sense, Poe suggests. On the contrary, the ideal poem becomes one in which the words efface themselves, disappear as they are read, leaving only a feeling of significant absence, of no-thing.

Just how Poe turned these poetic ideas into practice is briefly suggested in one of his poems, "Dreamland," where the narrator tells us that he has reached a strange nw land "out of SPACE—out of TIME."  That is the land that all Poe's art occupies or longs for: a fundamentally elusive reality, the reverse of all that our senses can receive or our reason can encompass—something that lies beyond life that we can discover only in sleep, madness, or trance, in death especially, and, if we are lucky, in a poem or story. Certain poetic scenes and subjects are favorites with Poe precisely because they reinforce his ultimately visionary aims. Unsurprisingly, life after death is a favorite topic, in poems like "Annabel Lee" and "The Sleeper." So, too, is the theme of a strange, shadowy region beyond the borders of normal consciousness: places such as those described in "The City in the Sea" or "Eldorado" which are, in effect, elaborate figures for death. As Poe himself explains in "The Philosophy of Composition," an account of how he wrote "The Raven," "the death . . . of a beautiful woman is unquestionably the most poetical topic in the world" because it enhances the seductive nature of death, transforming annihilation into erotic fulfillment.
chica rubia"O! nothing earthly," begins "Al Aaraaf," one of Poe's earliest poems, and that captures his poetic thrust: whatever the apparent subject, the movement is always away from the ordinary, phenomenal world in and down to some other, subterranean level of consciousness and experience. The sights and sounds of a realizable reality may be there in a poem like "To Helen," but their presence is only fleeting, ephemeral. Poe's scenes are always shadowy and insubstantial, the colors dim, the lighting dusky. In the final instance, the things of the real world are there only to be discarded—as signposts to another country that is, strictly speaking, imperceptible, unrealizable by the waking consciousness. 

"Helen, thy beauty is to me, /" "To Helen" begins, "Like those Nicean barks of yore, / That gently o'er a perfumed sea, / The warly, way-worn wanderer bore / To his own native shore." This is poetry as incantation. Poe uses hypnotic rhythm and recurring, verbal melody and words like "Nicean" that suggest more than they state: all to create a sense of mystery, or what a later poet, and disciple of Poe, Arthur Rimbaud, was to call "a prodigious, and rational disordering of all the senses." The narrator is transported, by the end of this poem, to "the regions which / Are Holy-Land!" So, ideally, is the reader. The motion here is remorselessly centripetal, away not just from the world of use, getting and spending, but from the entire world outside the self. In dreams, trance, death, Poe intimates, the self fashions its own reality, inviolable and intangible; it draws inward to a world that, to quote "Al Aaraaf" again, has "nothing of the dross" outside it, on the material plane. And, if the poet is capable of it, the poem makes a supreme version of that world: self-contained, fixed, perfect, it is a pure or closed field, as autonomous and impalpable as the reality it imitates. It is as if Poe, with typical perversity, had decided to rewrite the dangers that many of his contemporaries saw in the American ethic of selfhood, and the way it opened up the perilus possibility, in particular, of isolation. For, in his work, solipsism becomes the aim: the poet seeks neither to embrace nor to dominate the world but absolute solitude, the sanctuary of the disengaged soul.

Disengagement was not, however, something that Poe could pursue as a practical measure. He had to earn his living, to support himself and then later his wife: in 1836 he married his 13-year-old cousin, Virginia. He worked as an editor for various journals, including Burton's Gentleman's Magazine and Graham's Magazine; he was associated with other journals, such as the New-York Mirror and Godey's Lady's Book; in 1845 he even became proprietor of the Broadway Journal; and he was an apparently indefatigable essayist and reviewer. What the magazines wanted, in particular, was stories; and in 1835 Poe attracted attention with one of his first short stories, "MS Found in a Bottle," which won first prize in a contest judged by John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870)—himself a writer and author of one of the first idyllic fictional accounts of life in the old plantation, Swallow Barn: or, A Sojourn in the Old Dominion (1832). poe lonelyThis short story was followed by more and more tales appealing to the conteamporary taste for violent humor and macabre incident. "Murders in the Rue Morgue," "The Masque of the Red Death," and "The Imp of the Perverse" were all published in Graham's Magazine in 1841-1842, while 1843 saw the freelance publication of "The Tell-Tale Heart," "The Black Cat," "The Pit and the Pendulum," and another prize-winning story, "The Gold Bug." His first collection of stories, Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque, was published in 1840; it included "Ligeia," "Berenice," and "The Assignation." In 1845 Tales appeared, a book that reprinted previous work selected by Evert Duyckinck (1816-1878)—an influential man of letters of the time who, with his brother George (1823-1863), was to produce a Cyclopaedia of American Literature (1855), the most comprehensive scholarly work of its kind at the time. This later collection contained "The Pit and the Pendulum" and "The Talle-Tale Heart" among other notable pieces. In the earlier, in turn, Poe made his [in]tentions as a short story writer clear in a brief preface. It was true, Poe admitted, that many of his stories were Gothic because they had terror as their "thesis." But that terror, he went on, was not of the conventional kind, since it had little to do with the usual Gothic paraphernalia; it was, instead, a terror "of the soul."

Whatever else he might have been, Poe was an unusually perceptive (if often also malicious) critic. And he was especially perceptive about his own work. Poe did not invent the Gothic tale, any more than he invented the detective story, science fiction, or absurd humor. To each of these genres or approaches, however, he did—as he realized and, in some instances, boasted—make his own vital contribution. In a detective story like "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", for example, Poe created the detective story as a tale of ratiocination, a mystery that is gradually unraveled and solved. He also created the character of the brilliant amateur who solves a crime that seems beyond the talents of the professionals. And in his Gothic stories, he first destabilizes the reader by using unreliable narrators: madmen and liars, initially rational men who have their rationalism thoroughly subverted, men who should by all commonsensical standards be dead. And he then locates the terror within, in something that springs from and bears down upon the inner life. In Poe's stories, the source of mystery and anxiety is something that remains inexplicable. It is the urge to self-betrayal that haunts the narrator of "The Tell-Tale Heart," or the cruel and indomitable will of the narrator of "Ligeia," which finally transforms reality into fantasy, his living wife into a dead one. It is the impulse towards self-destruction, and the capacity for sinking into nightmare worlds of his own creation, that the protagonist and narrator of The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838) reveals at so many moments of his life. For that matter, it is the strange ending of Pym's story. As he hurtles toward a chasm in the seas from which arises "a shrouded human figure, very far larger in its proportions than any dweller among men . . . the hue of the skin . . . of the perfect whiteness of the snow," he appears to be hurtling toward death. Imaginatively, emotionally, it seems he is dying; and yet, according to other textual detail—and the simple, logical fact that he is narrating the story—he would appear to be alive. Poe tears the Gothic tale out of the rationalist framework it previously inhabited, with accompanying gestures toward common sense, science, or explanation. And he makes it a medium for exploring the irrational, even flirting with the antirational. As such, he makes it as central and vital to the Romantic tradition as, say, the lyric poem or the dream play.

"The Fall of the House of Usher" shows how Poe makes a fictional art out of inwardness and instability. The narrator, an initially commonsensical man, is confused by his feelings when he first arrives at the home of his childhood friend, Roderick Usher. "What was it," he asks himself, "that so unnerved me in the contemplation of the House of Usher?" But he is inclined to dismiss such feelings as "superstition": and, even when he is reunited with Usher, his response is "half of awe," suggesting suspicion that his host might know things hidden to him, and "half of pity," suggesting the superiority of the rational man. "Gradually, the narrator comes to speak only of "awe." He even admits that he feels "the wild influences" of Usher's "fantastic yet impressive superstitions" "creeping upon" him. The scene is set for the final moment when Roderick's sister Madeline arises from her grave to be reunited with him in death, and the House of Usher sinks into a "deep and dark tarn." At this precise moment, Usher turns to the narrator and speaks to him, for the last time, addressing him as "Madman." The reversal is now complete, either because the narrator has succumbed to the "superstition" of his host, or because his continued rationality argues for his essential insanity, his failure to comprehend a truth that lies beyond reason. Nothing is certain as the tale closes, except that what we have witnessed is an urgent, insistent movement inward: from daylight reality toward darker, ever more subterranean levels, in the house and in the mind of the hero. And as the narrator moves ever further inward, into "Usher" the house, we the readers move ever further inward into "Usher" the fiction. "The structures of the two journeys correspond. So, for that matter, do the arts of the hero and author. Roderick Usher uses his to transform his guests' minds and expectations, so also does Poe with his imaginative guests. And at the moment of revelation at the end—when the full measure of the solipsistic vision is revealed—both "Usher" the house and "Usher" the tale disintegrate, disappear, leaving narrator and reader alone with their thoughts and surmises. In short, the house of Usher is a house of mirrors. Every feature of the story is at once destabilizing and self-reflexive, referring us back to the actual process of creative production, by its author, and re-production, by its readers. Like so many other tales by Poe, "The Fall of the House of Usher" stands at the beginning of a long line of Southern narratives that incline toward narcissism and nostalgia, the movement inward and the movement back. And it stands at the beginning, also, of an even longer line of fiction, American and European, that disconcerts the reader by jettisoning the mundane in favor of the magical, bare fact in favor of mysterious fantasy—and turning the literal world into a kind of shadow play.
raven

Poe had, perhaps, his own reasons for wanting to turn the world into shadow play, and for associating women with death. His own mother had died when he was only two, which was why he went to live with the Allans; and, in 1847, his young wife Virginia died after a long, debilitating, and painful illness. Even during his more successful periods—when, for instance, "The Raven" was published in 1844 and became an overnight success—he was haunted by feelings of insecurity and inadequacy, reasonless fears that nothing seemed to diminish. In his last few years he remained prolific: in 1848 he published, among other things,
a long philosophical work, Eureka, and in 1849 he wrote one of his best known poems, "Annabel Lee." But he was finding it increasingly difficult to place his work. Suffering from periodic attacks of what he called "brainfever," or temporary mental instability, Poe turned for comfort to a series of relationships with women much older than himself, and to the simpler, chemical release offered by alcohol and opium. Nothing, however, seemed to relieve him; he attempted suicide. Then, in 1849, he disappeared in Baltimore on a journey; he was discovered five days later, in a delirious condition and wearing someone else's clothes. He never recovered enough to explain what he had been doing; he simply died four days after this. It was like one of his own stories; and, bizarre and disconcerting though it was, it seems an appropriate end for a writer who thrived on mystery, viewed life as a masquerade and death as a voyage into another, truer world. As we look at the story of Poe's forty years, we can see certain experiences and obsessions emerging to haunt his writing and aesthetic: death and beauty, alienation and subterfuge, loss and despair. What is perhaps more marked, however, is not this or that particular theme but a guiding impulse: the living and the writing show us someone who by sheer effort of will transforms everything he inhabits, who dissolves the sights and sounds of the world just as he touches them. Poe turned personality into performance, poetry and story into a series of ghostly gestures; in the process, he marked out boundaries for American Romanticism and its succeeding movements that few writers have been able, or even perhaps dared, to cross.



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Early Modern England with Keith E. Wrightson

domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013

Early Modern England with Keith E. Wrightson

A course at Yale University—with English subtitles:

Early Modern England: Politics, Religion, and Society under the Tudors and Stuarts (HIST 251)

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses

This course was recorded in Fall 2009.







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An Airy Stairway

lunes, 23 de septiembre de 2013

An airy stairway

An airy stairway by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
An airy stairway, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

martes, 24 de septiembre de 2013




chaucer ellesmereGeoffrey Chaucer


From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1343-1400), the son of John Chaucer (c.1312-68), a London vintner. The date of his birth has been much argued, all views now placing it between 1339 and 1346. In 1357 he served with Lionel, afterwards duke of Clarence. In 1359 he was in France with Edward III's invading army, was taken prisoner, and ransomed. He married, perhaps in 1366, Philippa, the daughter of Sir Paon Roet of Hainault and the sister of John of Gaunt's third wife Katherine Swynford. Philippa died in 1387 and Chaucer enjoyed Gaunt's patronage throughout his life. He held a number of positions at court and in the king's service, and he travelled abroad on numerous occasions on diplomatic missions; as well as missions to France, he made a journey to Genoa and Florence in 1372-3 in the course of which he could theoretically have met Boccaccio and (slightly more plausibly) Petrarch. He was sent on to France and Lombardy in 1378. In 1374 he was appointed controller of customs in the port of London and leased his house over Aldgate. He  was knight of the shire for Kent in 1386 and probably lived in Kent for most of the rest of his life. His last official position was deputy forester of the King's Forest at Petyherton in Somerset (1391-8 at least) and it is possible that he lived there for some time. He was buried in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey where a monument was erected to him in 1555. The known facts of his life are well summarized in The Riverside Chaucer (ed. L. D. Benson et al., 1988), pp. xi-xxii. His writings develop through his career from a period of French influence in the late 1460s (of which the culmination was The Book of the Duchess in about 1370), through his middle period of both French and Italian influences (including The House of Fame in the 1370s and the mature Italian-influenced works of which the most important is Troilus and Criseyde, c. 1485), to the last period of most of the Canterbury Tales and his short lyrics, but this chronology is not very enlightening. His prose works include a translation of Boethius (Boece) and the challenging A Treatise on the Astrolabe, written to 'little Lewis', probably the poet's son. Portraits of Chaucer occur in three places: in the Ellesmere MSS (now in the Huntington Library and the basis of most modern editions); in the manuscript of Troilus and Criseyde in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; and in Hoccleve's The Regement of Princes, beside lines 4.995-6 (in several manuscripts: the best is the one dating from Hoccleve's time, British Library Harley 4866, edited by Furnivall for EETS ES 72).

See D. A. Pearsall, The Life of Geoffrey Chaucer: A Critical Biography (1992), P. Boitani and J. Mann (eds.), The Cambridge Chaucer Companion (1986); J. D. North, Chaucer's Universe (1988); J. A. Burrow (ed.), Geoffey Chaucer.


The Book of the Duchess, a dream-poem in 1,334 lines by Chaucer, probably written in 1369, in octosyllabic couplets. It is believed, in accordance with a long-standing tradition (which was questioned in the 1950s), to be an allegorical lament on the death of Blanche of Lancaster, the first wife of John of Gaunt, who died in Sept. 1369.

The love-lorn poet falls asleep reading the story of Ceix (Seys) and Alcyone and follows a hunting party. He meets a knight in black who laments the loss of his lady. The knight tells of her virtue and beauty and of their courtship, and in answer to the dreamer's question declares her dead. The hunting party reappears and a bell strikes twelve, awakening the poet, who finds his book still in his hand. The poem is one of Chaucer's earliest works, but it has great charm and accomplishment. It is founded on the French tradition of the dream as a vehicle for love poetry. 'A Complaynt of a Loveres Lyfe' by Lydgate is based on it. For an account of the poem, see A. C. Spearing, Medieval Dream-Poetry (1976), 49-73, and B. A. Windeatt, Chaucer's Dream-Poetry: Sources and Analogues (1982).

The House of Fame, an unfinished dream poem by Chaucer, composed at some time between 1374 and 1385. There are three books, in 2,158 lines of octosyllabics; it is believed to be Chaucer's last poem in that French form. The poem remains cryptic, and it is uncertain what its purpose or extent would have been (though the poem says that the third book will, in fact, be the final one).

After the prologue on dreams and the invocation to the god of sleep, Bk 1 says the poet fell asleep and dreamt that he was in a Temple of Glass where he saw depicted Aeneas and Dido (based on Aeneid, 4); the dream moves on to deal more briefly with other parts of the Aeneid. At the end of Bk 1 the poet sees an eagle who alights by him and is his guide through the House of Fame in Bk II (initially suggested, perhaps, by Fama, Rumour, in Aeneid, 4, 173 ff.). The eagle explains, philosophically and at length, how Fame works in its arbitrary ways and the book ends with a vision of the word (thought by some to be amongst Chaucer's most inspired writing: 896-1045). The eagle departs and at the beginning of Bk III Chaucer enters the Palace of Fame (Rumour) where he sees the famous of both classical and biblical lore. Eolus blows a trumpet to summon up the various celebrities who introduce themselves in categories reminiscent of the souls in Dante's Divina commedia. Towards the end of the poem comes a vision of bearers of false tidings: shipmen, pilgrims, pardoners, and messengers, whose confusion seems to be about to be resolved by the appearance of 'A man of gret auctorite . . .'; but there the poem ends. The identity of this figure has been much discussed; Boethius seems the most plausible suggestion. Versions of the poem were made by Lydgate (in The Temple of Glas), Douglas, and Skelton.

See J. A. W. Bennett, Chaucer's Book of Fame (1968); S. Delaney, Chaucer's House of Fame (1972); P. Boitani, Chaucer and the Imaginary World of Fame (1984); also The Riverside Chaucer, ed. L. D. Benson et al. (1988).

Troilus and Criseyde, Chaucer's longest complete poem, in 8,239 lines of rhyme-royal [ababbcc] probably written in the second half of the 1380s (J. D. North, RES, 1969, has shown that the events of the poem take place in calendar circumstances corresponding on astrological evidence to dates between 1385 and 1388). Chaucer takes his story from Boccaccio's Il filostrato, adapting its eight books to five and changing the characters of Criseyde and Pandarus. In Boccaccio Troilo falls in love with Criseida whose cousin, Troilo's friend Pandaro, persuades her, not unwillingly, to become Troilo's lover. In the end Criseida has to leave the Trojan camp to join her father who had defected to the Greeks; in the Greek camp she betrays Troilo by falling in love with Diomede. While following the same narrative pattern, Chaucer deepens the sense of seriousness in the story by making Pandaro Criseida's uncle and guardian, by showing her deliberating at more length (this series of exchanges between uncle and niece in Book II is one of the most admired and anthologized parts of the poem), and by introducing deliberative material, principally from Boethius, calling into question the lovers' freedom of action. The poem ends with an adjuration to the young to repair home from worldly vanity and to place their trust, not in an unstable fortune as Troilus did, but in God. Discussion of the poem has centred largely on the appropriateness of the epilogue to the preceding action, on the attitudes to love (courtly love in particular) in the poem, and on the personality of the narrator and his effect on the narrative. The love story has no basis in classical antiquity but is the invention of Benoit de Sainte-Maure in his Roman de Troie, which was based on the pretended histories of Troy by Dares Phrygius and Dictys Cretensis. Boccaccio's intermediate source was Guido delle Colonne (see TROPHEE).  After Chaucer, the story was treated by Henryson in The Testament of Cresseid and by Shakespeare in Troilus and Cressida.

Ed. B. A. Windeatt (1984). N. R. Havely, Chaucer's Boccaccio (1980); J. D. North, Chaucer's Universe (1988); B. A. Windeatt, Troilus and Criseyde (1992); S. A. Barney (ed.), Critical Essays on Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde and His Major Early Poems (1991).


—oOo—
 


From The Short Oxford History of English Literature, by Andrew Sanders. 
 


Despite the manifest political and social disruptions of his age, Geoffrey Chaucer's poetry both expresses and embodies a firm sense of order. This is true as much of his twin masterpieces, Troilus and Criseyde (probably written in the mid-1380s) and The Canterbury Tales (planned c.1387), as of his more modestly conceived 'minor' poems and surviving prose works. This sense of order is evident not simply in his reflections on the nature and workings of the cosmos (such as his prose treatise on the use of the astrolabe, written to instruct his little son Lewis) and in his frequent allusions to Boetius's highly esteemed disquisition De consolatione philosophiae (which Chaucer himself translated into English prose in c.1380) but also in his steady affirmations of an orthodox Christian belief in divine involvement in human affairs. In Troilus and Criseyde, at the end of his evocation of incidents supposed to have taken place at the time of the Trojan War, Chaucer turns from his account of 'payens corsed olde rytes' ('the accursed old rites of the pagans') to a vision of Troilus translated from this world to the next and able to laugh serenely at the woe of those who mourn his death. If tragedy is here transformed into a divine comedy, so the 'olde rytes' are effectively blotted out in the pious concluding address to the Holy Trinity. This exultant prayer, in part derived from Dante, sees the Triune God as reigning eternally over all things and setting his mystical seal on human aspiration.

Chaucer (c.1343-1400), in common with most of his European contemporaries, also recognized that the natural and the human worlds could be seen as interrelated in the divine scheme of things, and, like the kingdom of heaven, ordered in hierarchies. In the witty, elegantly formed The Parlement of Foulys, written, it has been argued, to compliment the marriage of King Richard II to Anne of Bohemia in 1382, he presents a vision of birds assembled on St Valentine's Day in order to choose their proper mates. The birds have gathered before the goddess of Nature, and, in accordance with 'natural' law, they pay court, dipute, and pair off in a strictly stratified way. The royal eagles, seated in the highest places, take precedence, followed in descending order by other birds of prey until we reach the humblest and smallest seed-eaters. The debate in this avian parliament about how properly to secure a mate may remain unresolved, but it is clear that the nobler the bird the more formal are the rituals of courtship accorded to it. Ducks may prove pragmatic when snubbed by particular drakes ('"Ye queck [quack]!" yit seyde the doke, ful well and feyre, / "There been no sterres [stars], God wot, than a payre!"') but eagles seek for higher things in defining and exploring love and look down on such churlish common sense ('"Thy kynde is of so low a wrechednesse / That what love is, thow canst nat seen ne gesse"').
chaucer canterbury tales
The question of degree, and of the social perceptions conditioned by rank, also determines the human world that Chaucer variously delineates in The Canterbury Tales. The General Prologue, which sets out the circumstances which bring the pilgrims together at the Tabard Inn before they set off for Canterbury to pray at the tomb of the martyred St Thomas Becket, also presents them to us, as far as it is feasible, according to their estate ('Me thynketh it accordaunt to resoun / To telle yow al the condicioun / Of ech of hem, so as it semed me, / And whiche they weren, and of what degree'). The Knight is naturally placed first, followed by his son the Squire, and by his attendant Yeoman. The Knight is duly succeeded by representatives of the Church: the fastidious Prioress with an accompanying Nun, personal chaplain, and three other priests; the Monk who holds the office of outrider in his monastery (and who therefore appears to enjoy extra-mural luxuries more than the disciplined life of his order); and the equally worldly and mercenary Friar. The third estate is represented by a greater variety of figures, rich, middling, and poor, beginning with a shomewhat shifty Merchant, a bookish Oxford Clerk, a Sergeant of the Law, and a Franklin. We move downwards socially to the urban guildsmen (Haberdasher, Carpenter, Weaver, Dyer, and Tapicer), to the skilled tradesmen (Cook, Shipman, Doctor of Physic), and to a well-off widow with a trade of her own (the Wife of Bath). Chaucer relegates his Parson, his Ploughman, his Manciple, and his reprobates (the Reeve, the Miller, the Summoner, and the Pardoner) to the end of his troupe (though he also modestly includes himself, a hig-ranking royal official, at the end of the list). It is with this last group that he seems to want to surprise his readers by contrasting paragons of virtue with those whose very calling prompts periodic falls from grace (the Reeve strikes fear into his master's tenants while feathering his own nest; the Miller steals corn and overcharges his clients; the lecherous Summoner makes a parade of his limited learning; and the Pardoner trades profitably in patently false relics). Where the Manciple's native wit and acquired administrative skills see to render him worthy of better things, Chaucer's stress on the due humility of the Parson and the Ploughman proclaims their exemplary fitness for their modest but essential social role. If the Knight at the top of the social scale had seemed 'a worthy man', loyal to his knightly vows and embodying the spirit of chivalry, so, in their respective callings, the Parson stands for the true mission of the Church to the poor, and the Ploughman for the blessedness of holy poverty. When Chaucer describes the two as brothers, it is likely that he sees their fraternity as rooted in Christian meekness and closeness to God. Both, in the manner of Langland's Piers, act out the gospel: the Parson by offering a 'noble ensample to his sheep' and the Ploughman by 'lyvynge in pees and parfit charitee'.

Although it has been suggested that the Knight's professional career has been marked by a series of military disasters and that both his portrait and his tale can be read ironically, it would seem likely that the overall scheme of The Canterbury Tales, had it ever been completed, would have served to enhance his dignity rather than to undermine it. The Host of the Tabard proposes that each of the pilgrims should tell two tales on the way to Canterbury and two on the return journey. Even in the fragmentary and unfinished form in which the poem has come down to us (only twenty-four tales are told), it is clear that the Knight's taking precedence as the first story-teller is not merely a matter of chance. The narrator comments that although he cannot tell whether it was a matter of 'aventure, or sort, or cas [chance]¡ that the luck of the draw fell to such a natural leader, the fact that it did so both pleases the other pilgrims and satisfies the demands of social decorum. The Knight's Tale, an abbreviated version of Boccaccio's Teseida, is an appropriately high-minded history of the rivalry of two noble cousins for the love of a princess, a history elegantly complemented by accounts of supernatural intervention in human affairs and equally elegant and decisive human ceremonial. If the Ploughman is not allotted a tale, the Parson's with which The Canterbury Tales concludes, is a long prose treatise on the seven deadly sins, less a tale than a careful sermon expressive of devout gravitas and earnest learning. Sandwiched between these two tales Chaucer arranges stories loosely fitted to their tellers' tastes and professions and tailored to fit into the overarching narrative shape by prologues, interjections, or disputes between characters. The Parson's singularly worthy discourse is complemented by that of the otherwise shadowy Nun's Priest who offers a lively story of a wily cock caught by a fox, a story which he rounds off with the clerical insistence that listeners grasp 'the moralite'. The Pardoner too tells a tidy moral tale, though its carefully shaped warning of the mortal dangers of covetousness can be seen reflecting back on the personal avarice to which its teller spiritedly and frankly confesses in his prologue: 'I preche of no thyng but for coveityse / . . . Thus kan I preche agayn that same vice / Which that I use, and that is avarice. / But though myself be gilty in that synne, / Yet kan I maken oother folk to twynne [turn] / From avarice, and soore to repente." The Prioress also tells a short, devotional tale of a pious Christian child whose throat is cut by Jews but who miraculously manages to continue singing a Marian hymn after his death. Its pathos, if not to the taste of more morally squeamish ages, is evidently well received by the devout fourteenth-century hearers.

Elsewhere in The Canterbury Tales tellers seem to have far less inclination to wear their hearts and consciences on their sleeves. The Merchant, prompted by the Clerk's adaptation of Boccaccio's story of the trials of patient Griselda, offers the salutary tale of an old husband (January) and his 'fresshe' young bride (May), an impatiently frisky wife who, exploiting her husband's sudden blindness, is seduced in a pear tree by her lover. When January's sight is mischievously restored by the god Pluto, Proserpine equally mischievously inspires May to claim that she was acting in her husband's best interests: 'Up peril of my soule, I shal not lyen, / As me was taught, to heele with youre eyes, / Was no thyng bet, to make yow see, / Than strugle with a man upon a tree / God woot, I dide it in ful good entente.' At the lower end of the social, and perhaps moral, scale Chaucer allots still earthier stories to the Miller, the Reeve, the Friar, and the Summoner. When the Host proposes that the Knight's 'noble storie' should be succeeded by something equally decorous from the Monk, the Miller drunkenly intrudes himself and, somewhat improbably, tells the beautifully plotted tale of a dull-witted carpenter, his tricksy wife, and her two suitors. The Miller's Tale presents a diametrically opposed view of courtship to that offered by the Knight. It also serves to provoke the Reeve (who is a carpenter by profession) into recounting an anecdote about a cuckolded miller. In like manner, the Friar tells a story about an extortionate summoner who is carried off to hell by the Devil, and the enraged Summoner ('lyk an aspen leef he quoke for ire') responds with the history of an ingenious friar obliged to share out the unexpected legacy of 'the rumblynge of a fart' amongst his brethren.

The Chaucer who so modestly place himself last in the list of the pilgrims also casts himself in the role of an incompetent story-teller. His irony is nowhere more pointed than in this cleverly extended and self-deprecatory ruse which opens with a direct challenge to his assumed shyness from the Host. 'What man artow [art thou]?', 'Chaucer' is asked, 'Thou lookest as thou woldest find an hare, / For evere on the ground I see thee stare'. The response is the tale of Sir Thopas, a parody of contemporary romance told in awkward, singsong, six-line stanzas. The parody may always have served to amuse sophisticated readers, but the Host, who rudely interrupts its progress, claims that its teller's evident ineptness is boring the company. The pilgrim 'Chaucer' is therefore obliged to begin another tale, this time a long and weighty prose homily which retells the story of imprudent Melibeus and his wife, the aptly named Prudence. At its conclusion the Host somewhat over-politely compensates for his earlier rudeness by unenthusiastically confessing that he would have liked his own wife to have heard the tale ('for she nys no thyng of swich pacience'). Despite such soothing politeness, Chaucer's pretence of incompetence in the company of such accomplished story-tellers as his fellow-pilgrims is a highly effective device. He had indirectly prepared for this device by insisting on the virtues of 'truthful' narrative representation at the end of the General Prologue. He had also attempted to justify his realism by citing the highest authorities:
chaucer knightstale

Whoso shal telle a tale after a man,
He moot reherce as ny as evere he kan
Everich a word, if it be in his charge,
Al speke he never so rudeliche and large,
Or ellis he moot telle his tae untrewe,
Or feyne thyng, or fynde wordes newe.
He may nat spare, althogh he were his brother;
He moot as wel seye o [one] word as another.
Crist spak hymself ful brode plainly in hooly writ,
And wel ye woot no vileynye is it,
Eek Plato seith, whoso that kan hym rede,
The wordes moote be cosyn [akin] to the dede.
Also I prey yow to foryeve [forgive] it me.
Al have I nat set folk in hir degree
Heere in this tale, as that they sholde stonde.
My wit is short, ye may wel understonde.


Here is the pretence of modesty and incompetence, but here too is the insistence on frankness and proper representation, albeit justified with reference to Christ and to Plato (beyond whose authority few medieval readers would feel the need to refer), Chaucer neutralizes and diminishes himself as a narrator in order that his narrative representation of others' words and narratives might shine with a greater 'truth' to God's nature. In a way that his theologically minded contemporaries might readily understand, he is posing as the servant of the servants of Christ, having become, like St Paul before him, 'all things to all men' ('omnibus factus sum omnia'). The Christian poet of The Canterbury Tales, one variously influenced by both Boccaccio and Dante, endeavours to show us a broad spectrum of sinful humanity on an earthly journey, a journey which original readers would readily have recognized as a prevision of, and a preparation for, a heavenly one.


Despite his intellectual delight in the concept of cosmic, natural, and human order, Chaucer the poet and the truth-teller of necessity subverts certain received ideas of degree. Most crucially, he effectively undermines the commonly held medieval idea of the natural inferiority of women to men by representing articulate and intelligent women at the centre of human affairs rather than on the periphery. If the well-born ladies of antiquity are allowed to become norms against which human behaviour can be measured in The Legend of Good Women (c.1372-86), Troilus and Criseyde, and certain of The Canterbury Tales, the Wife of Bath asserts a distinctly ungenteel opposition to anti-feminist stereotypes. Although some readers may have interpreted the Wife's 856-line prologue as evidence of a woman protesting too much (and therefore confirming, or at the very least endorsing, many of the male prejudices against which she loudly complains), Chaucer's adoption of a strident woman's voice ought also to be seen as opening up an alternative polemic. Her very stridency, we also realize, is a direct consequence of over-rigid patriarchal ways of thinking and acting. The Wife of Bath is certainly no model of meekness, patience, and chastity. She opens her discourse with the word 'experience', and from that experience of living with five husbands (three of them good men, she observes, because they were 'riche, and olde') she builds up a spirited case against conventional, theoretical, clerically inspired anti-feminism. Celibacy and virginity are all very well, she insists, but Christ's stricter demands were addressed 'to hem that wolde lyve parfitly', and, as she adds for the benefit of her male listeners, 'lordynges, by youre leve, that am nat I'. Moreover, if God gave her her sexuality, she has been determined to enjoy it, albeit within the bounds of marriage ('In wyfhod I wol use myn instrument / As frely as my Makere hath it sent'). Having learned by experience and native with how to manage her first partners ('Atte ende I hadde the bettre in ech degree, / By sleighte, or force, or by som maner thyng, / As by continueel mumur or grucchyng') she seems to have met her match in the clerk Jankyn, her junior by twenty years. Jankyn had the particularly irritating habit of reading learned tracts against women in her presence, quoting choice items aloud in order to demonstrate the superiority of his own sex. Provoked into decisive action, she ripped three pages out of the book and dealt Jankyn a blow with her fist, only to be floored herself by a retaliatory blow. Nevertheless, her consequent unconsciousness (perhaps feigned) has worked its proper effect: the shocked Jankyn is brought to sudden repentance and thereafter she has ruled the domestic roost ('He yaf [gave] me al the bridel in my hond, / To han the governance of hous and lond, / And of his tonge, and of his hond also; / And made hym brenne [burn] his book anon right tho').

The Wife of Bath achieves mastery in what can be seen as an essentially bourgeois domestic comedy, albeit one informed with partially disgraced academic theories about women's limited marital and social roles. Elsewhere in his work, Chaucer stresses a distinctive self-assurance and dignity in women of the ancient and modern ruling classes, qualities which are more vital than the special honour accorded to the sex by the male-defined code of chivalry. In the early dream-poem, The Book of the Duchess (probably written c.1369 as an allegorical lament on the death of Blanche of Lancaster, the first wife of John of Gaunt), the narrator encounters a desolate knight, clad in black. The knight is mourning the death of a wife not, as in so much contemporary love-poetry, the absence, the fickleness, or the coldness of a mistress. Theirs has been more than a courtly liaison and more than the amorous vassalage of him to her. Mutual respect has made for a marriage of minds, and as far as was possible, a partnership in love. She was, the knight confesses, 'that swete wif / My suffisaunce, my lust, my lyf, / Myn hap, myn hele, and al my blesse'. The knight's therapeutic account of his long courtship, happy marriage, and unhappy bereavement is prefaced by a retelling of Ovid's story of the widowed Queen Alcyone, who, faithful to the memory of the dead King Ceys, is granted a vision of him. The pattern, re-exploring classical instances and Ovidian exempla is repeated on far grander scale in the unfinished The Legend of Good Women. Here ancient history is ransacked for appropriate subjects because, Chaucer's narrator insists, it had traditionally provided his predecessors with 'approved' stories 'of holynesse, of regnes, of victoryies, / of love, of hate'. It is on women's holiness and steadfastness in love that the narrator dwells, he having been rebuked in a dream by the god of Love for the former 'heresies' of speaking ill of women in The Romaunt of the Rose and Troilus and Criseyde. The nine legends he retells as a penance speak of heroines who suffered, and sometimes died, as a consequence of their devout love for faithless men. Instances of male violence and treachery are monotonously heaped one on another as Antony abandons Cleopatra, Aeneas Dido, Tarquin Lucrece, and Theseus Ariadne. By frequently appealing to sources, to named authors, and to what was commonly ackknowledged to be the authority of 'olde bokes', Chaucer attempts to turn an equally derivative clerical tradition of unrelenting misogyny on its head. He also shapes the legends to emphasize what he sees as the feminine virtue of 'pitee'. It is pity which renders women susceptible to male deceit, but it is also seen as an aspet of the highly eseemed human quality of generosity of spirit. As the legends demonstrate, this same aspect of generosity, to which men seem to be impervious, allows women to respond so fully to love, to grow in love and, through tragedy, to find the emotional strength which enables them to explore the depths of suffering.

In the Prologue to The Legend of Good Women the dapper god of Love seems to disparage Chaucer's most carefully wrought and self-consciously achieved single poem by referring to it simply as the story of 'how that Crisseyde Troylus forsok'. The god appears to have been persuaded that Troilus and Criseyde had taken up the traditional misogynist theme that throughout history 'wemen han dun mis' in their dealings with men. The god may not have been alone in his prejudiced reading of the sotry, but to many latter-day readers it seems to be a narrow and ungenerous one. The poem is less the story of a man betrayed by a woman than the account of how a woman, having been pressured into responding to a man's over enthusiastic love for her, is driven from one relationship to another. Instead of being portrayed as contrasted representatives of faith and betrayal, both Troilus and Criseyde are observed as victims of circumstances, at once humanly and divinely contrived, and beyond their direct control. Although Chaucer drew heavily on Boethius for his consolatory explorations of the ideas of free will, predestination, mutability, and fortune throughout Troilus and Criseyde, his immediate and principal source for the poem was contemporary. In no sense, however, was Chaucer merely translating Boccaccio's familiar and admired Trojan story, Il Filostrato, into English. His distinctive shifts in emphasis, narrative shape, and characterization clearly indicate that this is more a deliberate reinterpretation than a translation. Boccaccio's Criseida is, for example, willingly persuaded by her cousin Pandaro into accepting Troilo as a lover. In Chaucer's version the characters of Criseyde and Pandarus possess both a new dramatic energy and a new blood-relationship. Pandarus is transformed into Criseyde's sensible, sentimental, but none the less manipulative uncle, one who acts as her guardian and counsellor in the absence of her father. His task of persuading his niece to look favourably on Troilus's love is rendered one of subtle negotiation, mediation, suggestion, and emotional conditioning. She, rather than being fickle by nature, is seen as tender, sensitive, ingenuous, and open to change. Chaucer's narrative carefully balances the length of the process by whicvh she is persuaded to accept Troilus against the time she takes over agonizing about abandoning him. When the lovers are forced apart by her removal to join her father in the Greek camp outside Troy, Criseyde's grief is intense. Her avowals are as extravagant as they are agonized:
Rota fortunae

'And Troilus, my clothes everychon
Shul blake ben in tokenyng, herte swete,
That I am as out of this world agon,
That wont was yow to setten in quiete;
And of myn ordre, ay til deth me mete,
The observance evere, in youre absence,
Shal sorwe ben, compleynt and abstinence.

'Myn herte and ek the woful goost therinne
Byquethe I, with youre spirit to compleyne
Eternaly, for they shal nevere twynne.
For though in erthe ytwynned be we tweyne,
Yet in the feld of pite, out of peyne,
That highte Elisos [Elysium], shal we ben yfeere [together],
As Orpheus with Euridice, his fere [companion, wife].


Her ambiguously optimistic interpretation of the Orpheus/Eurydice story may well lead us to perceive how uneasily tragic are the undertones of her avowal. For Criseyde, lovers  symbolically pass through Hades to reach Elysium, or, in medieval Christian terms, they suffer penitentially in Purgatory as a preparation for Paradise. Criseyde's descent to Hades/Purgatory, a place where the only certainty is uncertainty, will be metaphoric. Separated from Troilus, a new element of ambiguity enters the narrative. The narrator himself purports to consult his source to find an exaggeratedly clear statement of her treachery. Criseyde, however, is painfully conscious that hers is indeed a world-without-end decision, one which will render her infamous in subsequent human annals:

But trewely, the storie telleth us,
Ther made nevere woman moore wo
Than she, whan that she falsed Troilus.
She seyde, 'Allas! for now is clene ago [gone]
My name of trouthe in love, for everemo!
For I have falsed oon the gentileste
That evere was, and oon the worthieste!
'Alas! of me, unto the worldes ende,
Shal neyther ben ywriten nor ysonge
No good word, for thise bokes wol me shende [reproach].
O, rolled shal I ben on many a tonge!
Thorughout the worrld my belle shal be ronge!
And wommen moost wol haten me of alle.
Allas, that swich a cas me sholde falle!'


Faced with such agonized self-awareness, the narrator retreats into pity, reluctant to blame her more than his historic predecessors have done but willingly to concede that her penitence impresses him ('For she so sory was for hire untrouthe, / Iwis, I wolde excuse hire yet for routhe [pity]').

If the narrator of Troilus and Criseyde is neither the gentle incompent 'Chaucer' of The Canterbury Tales nor the incomprehending innocent of the dream-poems, he nevertheless shares something of their generous susceptibility. Like them, he suggests a tense, shifting relationship between the poet and his persona, and consequently between the poet and his poem. He moves around his characters, allowing them to express their respective points of view, at times ruminating on the iron laws of fate and divinely imposed predestination, at others both suggesting and withdrawing from judgement. He allows the story a certain autonomy while varying his commentary by deferring both to his sources and to his audience. In Troilus and Criseyde at least, he seems to insist that history is steady and needs to be retold, while allowing that his story is reshaped in the very act of retelling it. Essentially, he remains ambivalent, or, perhaps, given his evident sympathy with women and his admiration for what he seems to have identified as feminine generosity of spirit, he assumes a deliberate androgyny. He is certainly the least egocentric of poets. Although Chaucer is in every sense a writer of his time, he was also the first poet in English both to display and to make a particular narrative issue of the quality which John Keats later so memorably defined as 'negative capability'.




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Azul y verde

martes, 24 de septiembre de 2013

Azul y verde

Azul y verde by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Azul y verde, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Lunes, 06 de Enero de 2014 00:15. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Microblog de septiembre 2013

martes, 24 de septiembre de 2013

Microblog de septiembre 2013


 
 
 
Proliferation of details detalle


30 sep 13, 09:39
JoseAngel: Mi página de enlaces: http://bit.ly/garcialanda
29 sep 13, 21:52
JoseAngel: A lecture on the Restoration: http://youtu.be/ceFidZi9ge4
28 sep 13, 00:20
JoseAngel: Sobre la competencia del narrador en la ficción: http://www.academia.edu/176322/

24 sep 13, 20:05
JoseAngel: Actos indirectos y en general poco serios: La tradición literaria como pragmática intertextual: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256023573
23 sep 13, 22:23
JoseAngel: Apuestas: Los del chivatazo del Faisán no van a ver la cárcel ni de lejos. Así están de conchabados jueces, PP, PSOE... y los amigos de la Eta.
22 sep 13, 07:07
JoseAngel: Acting and Mirror Neurons: http://youtu.be/loB-Lg0X1qo
21 sep 13, 19:43
JoseAngel: Acabo de ver a Alvarete con Paloma desde el balcón - ¡qué majetes!
21 sep 13, 11:05
JoseAngel: A ver cuándo dejamos de financiar el nacionalismo: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-21/editorial-de-luis-del-pino-financiando-el-nacionalismo-63988.html
19 sep 13, 23:35
JoseAngel: Vanity Fea: Prospecciones intertextuales | @scoopit http://sco.lt/8cerVB
19 sep 13, 20:02
JoseAngel: El gobierno tapando el caso Faisán, después de tanto denunciarlo: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-17/federico-a-las-7-hubo-orden-politica-en-el-faisan-63819.html?utm_source=9&utm_m
17 sep 13, 08:40
JoseAngel: Horizonte invisible: http://lamiradaindiscretafotoblog.blogspot.com.es/2013/09/horizonte-invisible.html
15 sep 13, 22:28
JoseAngel: Rajoy y sus "diálogos" http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-15/sin-complejos-programa-completo-15092013-63767.html
15 sep 13, 00:01
JoseAngel: A partir de ahora muchas cosas de esta cbox irán a Twitter. Ya veremos si la conservo o no.
14 sep 13, 17:13
JoseAngel: The Guidestones: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/?p=3494#.UjR77LzNdmM
14 sep 13, 16:47
JoseAngel: Daniel H. Cohen, For Argument's Sake: http://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_h_cohen_for_argument_s_sake.html
14 sep 13, 15:43
JoseAngel: Según la geolocalización de Twitter prácticamente no había independentistas catalanes FUERA de la cadena - JUAS: http://t.co/4J7DLzXQLs
14 sep 13, 11:42
JoseAngel: Mélissa, What's up: http://youtu.be/Ib5nWMTxOSY
14 sep 13, 11:26
JoseAngel: Malditos chismes de limpieza y jardinería del Ayuntamiento y de la Universidad. Qué estruendo causan, qué contaminación sonora tan asquerosa
14 sep 13, 01:04
JoseAngel: Algunos elementos metaficcionales: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256022778
13 sep 13, 23:23
JoseAngel: Moby Dick rediviva: http://www.fogonazos.es/2013/09/otra-aparicion-estelar-de-migaloo-la.html
13 sep 13, 11:57
JoseAngel: Otro ránking en el que no salimos: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1309/130912_z0_abcuniver.pdf
13 sep 13, 00:37
JoseAngel: Absolutamente de acuerdo con el editorial de ayer del diario @abc_es pic.twitter.com/HT0EzOKz3P @Santi_ABASCAL
13 sep 13, 00:04
JoseAngel: Yo también estoy por seguir ese camino.
12 sep 13, 23:54
JoseAngel: Nasa says Voyager 1 space probe has left solar system and is first manmade object to enter interstellar space http://bbc.in/17Zw8Gj
12 sep 13, 23:41
JoseAngel: Algunos elementos metaficcionales: http://www.academia.edu/4471376/
12 sep 13, 19:02
JoseAngel: Siniestros fantoches asesinos... Así murió ejecutada Halima por disparos de su propio padre | España | elmundo.es http://mun.do/15XIY5h
12 sep 13, 17:12
JoseAngel: Enviada a Rusia la versión final de mi artículo para el volumen sobre la Semiosfera.
12 sep 13, 13:32
JoseAngel: Comentario estilo aragonés sobre la Diada independentista catalana: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-12/federico-a-las-7-queman-la-bandera-de-espana-63634.html
12 sep 13, 06:22
JoseAngel: Cuando se despertó, seguía allí.
12 sep 13, 00:12
JoseAngel: "Complicidad silenciosa" de muchos catalanes (y otros españoles) con los independentistas, dice Sánchez Camacho.
12 sep 13, 00:00
JoseAngel: El gato al agua sobre Cataluña: http://www.intereconomia.com/videoplayer?categoria=otros&nid=1079338&parte=0
11 sep 13, 23:19
JoseAngel: La cadena por la independencia catalana en EsRadio: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-11/editorial-de-luis-herrero-la-cadena-por-la-independencia-63623.html
11 sep 13, 22:39
JoseAngel: La obsesiva sardana: http://endirecto.lavanguardia.com/politica/20130911/54382304190/via-catalana.html
11 sep 13, 19:40
JoseAngel: Homage to Iain Banks: http://blogs.uab.cat/saramartinalegre/2013/09/07/read-you-later-iain-m-banks-learning-the-meaning-of-the-word-completist/
11 sep 13, 13:31
JoseAngel: Vivan las caenas. Boicot a productos catalanes mientras sigan eligiendo gobiernos nacionalistas.
11 sep 13, 09:22
JoseAngel: Alaya preimputa a Chaves y a Griñán (presidentes del PSOE): http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-11/federico-a-las-6-alaya-preimputa-a-chaves-y-grinan-63586.html
11 sep 13, 08:12
JoseAngel: El Fiscal Anticorrupción, perdiendo el culo por si puede proteger a los mafiosos del PSOE andaluz.
10 sep 13, 22:21
JoseAngel: La presidencia del PSOE, al banquillo por MAFIOSOS: http://t.co/2RiJ6eGHS5
10 sep 13, 20:33
JoseAngel: The Love of Books: The Philobiblion of Richard de Bury: http://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/uva-lib:476744
10 sep 13, 19:30
JoseAngel: Muchos profesores, y con poca capacidad de maniobra: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1309/130910_z0_mundopisa.pdf
10 sep 13, 11:14
JoseAngel: Rosa Díez: "Nada de lo que pide Mas es razonable, todo es inconstitucional" http://www.antena3.com/noticias/espana/rosa-diez-nada-que-pide-mas-razonable-todo-inconstitucional_2013091000028.html
10 sep 13, 11:12
JoseAngel: Sigo con la tos latosa.
10 sep 13, 07:07
JoseAngel: Federico a las 7: "Hoy una cadena, mañana el váter completo"
9 sep 13, 23:51
JoseAngel: VUELTA CICLISTA ESPAÑA 2013 en Biescas grabada por mi madre. Más motoristas que ciclistas: http://t.co/9mmGippQAQ vía @youtube
9 sep 13, 21:51
JoseAngel: Más de 3000 españoles PAGAN por apuntarse a la cola de un viaje a Marte sin retorno. Sí que está mal el país—o algunas cabezas.
9 sep 13, 17:30
JoseAngel: Imagism: http://youtu.be/2gU4F6ePhcM
9 sep 13, 13:51
JoseAngel: Plácido Díez no se cree lo de que la crisis se acaba. Ni yo http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1309/130909_z0_15.pdf
9 sep 13, 13:38
JoseAngel: Un patrimonio de depredadores, tampoco es para pelearse por él: http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1309/130909_z0_15.pdf
9 sep 13, 13:14
JoseAngel: Citan mi bibliografía en la asignatura de Apreciación Artística del Colegio de Bachilleres de México: http://t.co/rnJMurlBR2
9 sep 13, 12:24
JoseAngel: Edgar Allan Poe: The Mystery: http://youtu.be/WiXKmn8WwZg
8 sep 13, 23:45
JoseAngel: Otra vez en Zaragoza, después del último viaje a Biescas de este verano. Creo.
8 sep 13, 23:18
JoseAngel: Políticos que pactan con la mafia: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-09-08/sin-complejos-programa-completo-08092013-63486.html
8 sep 13, 10:20
JoseAngel: Se va al fango el "sueño olímpico". Ya han sacado bastante tajada algunos, ya. http://www.rtve.es/deportes/20130907/madrid-2020-cae-eliminada-dice-adios-juegos-olimpicos/745462.shtml
8 sep 13, 10:19
JoseAngel: El día 7, el 7, el 7 de septiembre... Quién cada siete de septiembre.
6 sep 13, 23:04
JoseAngel: Gadamer narra la historia de la filosofía: http://efimeroescombrera.wordpress.com/2013/08/28/video-youtube-gadamer-narra-la-historia-de-la-filosofia-completo/
6 sep 13, 22:35
JoseAngel: Patético Mariano, a repetir lo de Irak calcado, a ver si puedes caer más bajo.
6 sep 13, 22:33
JoseAngel: España respalda «una contundente respuesta internacional contra Siria" - El capote de Obama a Mariano se vende así http://t.co/tdx3lzd5JD
6 sep 13, 20:36
JoseAngel: Eudald Carbonell, Los grandes hitos de la evolución humana: http://www.march.es/conferencias/anteriores/voz.aspx?id=1582&l=1
6 sep 13, 18:54
JoseAngel: 'And he wondered': Imágenes del lector en la novela de Beckett: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2321814
6 sep 13, 17:01
JoseAngel: El Arte como elemento de cohesión social durante la prehistoria: http://www.march.es/conferencias/anteriores/voz.aspx?id=2530&l=1
6 sep 13, 16:58
JoseAngel: Conferencia (audio) sobre la cultura y civilización humana como evolución: http://www.march.es/conferencias/anteriores/voz.aspx?id=2532&l=1
6 sep 13, 14:13
JoseAngel: Inglés: la llave para entrar en una época de oportunidades http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1309/130906_z0_18.pdf
5 sep 13, 23:15
JoseAngel: Eudald Carbonell: Tecnología socializada http://www.march.es/conferencias/anteriores/voz.aspx?id=2531&l=1
5 sep 13, 19:43
JoseAngel: Yo también hago cadenetas: BOICOT A PRODUCTOS CATALANES.
5 sep 13, 19:32
JoseAngel: ¿Madrid 20020? Ojala acierte la profecía del logo: https://t.co/83v70J5DJi
5 sep 13, 19:25
JoseAngel: Un sitio por donde no pasear... excepto en pantalla completa: http://www.webislam.com/videos/57300-el_camino_del_rey.html
5 sep 13, 19:16
JoseAngel: Obama rascándole la espalda a Rajoy, no me vengas... Necesita aliados, y una buena palabra sale barata.
5 sep 13, 16:33
JoseAngel: A debate on revolution by theorists: http://backdoorbroadcasting.net/2013/07/london-critical-theory-summer-school-2013-friday-debate-i/
5 sep 13, 16:30
JoseAngel: Con Zapatero como príncipe filósofo, y piedra de toque para 'philistines'. Visto desde lejos, claro.
5 sep 13, 16:09
JoseAngel: Quentin Skinner, Why the History of Philosophy? http://backdoorbroadcasting.net/2010/11/quentin-skinner-why-the-history-of-philosophy/
5 sep 13, 15:45
JoseAngel: @BarackObama Do not bomb #Syria. Give up the idea of starting a war or give back the #Nobel Peace Price http://t.co/WSVI9mXKeX
4 sep 13, 21:54
JoseAngel: Vanity Fea: El Efecto Mateo y la calidad retroactiva | @scoopit http://t.co/csQniilXDE
4 sep 13, 17:39
JoseAngel: We'll become something different. And once we have become it, we won't be able to remember who we were: http://t.co/9mTbTCAtHN
4 sep 13, 13:44
JoseAngel: Quiere venderme un certificado honorífico el International Biographical Centre: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Biographical_Centre
4 sep 13, 13:12
JoseAngel: El efecto viral de un infundio supera con creces al de su desmentido: http://t.co/XnlI5zahs6
4 sep 13, 13:04
JoseAngel: Aurora Egido, Medalla de Oro de la Ciudad. Los premios son acumulativos. http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1309/130904_z0_6.pdf
4 sep 13, 12:52
JoseAngel: NARRATOLOGY (libro que coedité) ahora publicado por Routledge: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780582255432/
4 sep 13, 09:15
JoseAngel: La interpretación del TS ha derogado completamente los delitos de corrupción para los políticos. http://t.co/RT6VsmK2SR
3 sep 13, 23:45
JoseAngel: @encasadeherrero Maldición, llegó el jodío fútbol a la noche de esRadio. Tendremos que emigrar a otra emisora.
3 sep 13, 21:51
JoseAngel: Comprando libros de texto de los chavales. Ya no estudian "Lengua española y literatura" sino "Lengua castellana y literatura" — hay que joderse
3 sep 13, 15:51
JoseAngel: El desafío de la Diada. Pero esRadio pierde mucho al irse César Vidal, y en esta presentación NI LO NOMBRAN. Qué mal. http://t.co/EBFgnwLG3M
2 sep 13, 15:11
JoseAngel: I in my eye: Blog de notas de agosto 2013: http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/z13-8.html
2 sep 13, 14:21
JoseAngel: CiU contrapone 'la Cataluña productiva' con 'la España subsidiada' para defender la soberanía http://elmun.do/172MMFL Tendrán cojonazos. Boicot a productos catalanes.
2 sep 13, 14:19
JoseAngel: Ya he estado en Hacienda, de bancos, en el taller de la moto, y luego un examen. Me queda la ITV y los libros del cole. Viva septiembre.
2 sep 13, 01:54
JoseAngel: Minuto 23: Izquierda Unida, partidaria de la dedocracia del corrupto Griñán: http://www.libertaddigital.com/opinion/juan-carlos-girauta/rajoy-responde-a-mas-69295/
2 sep 13, 01:40
JoseAngel: Rajoy responde a Mas: http://www.libertaddigital.com/opinion/juan-carlos-girauta/rajoy-responde-a-mas-69295/
2 sep 13, 01:35
JoseAngel: Entrevista a Alejo Vidal Quadras: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-08-31/entrevista-a-alejo-vidal-cuadras-63192.html
2 sep 13, 01:31
JoseAngel: Llegamos a Zaragoza tras un viaje un tanto lúgubre. Vemos a Fabiola justo antes de que salga para Alemania.
1 sep 13, 10:24
JoseAngel: Saliendo de Bueu, camino de Zaragoza. Y del otoño.
1 sep 13, 08:48
JoseAngel: Se va César Vidal de EsRadio: http://www.diarioliberal.com/2013/07/23/cesar-vidal-sigue-atacando-a-esradio-y-a-javier-somalo/








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Lunes, 06 de Enero de 2014 00:16. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Personales




Der Präsensroman

miércoles, 25 de septiembre de 2013

Der Präsensroman

Avanessian, Armen, and Anke Hennig, eds. Der Präsensroman. (Narratologia, 36). Berlin and Boston: de Gruyter, 2013. (Introd., 1-24; Zusammenfassung, 269-81.).

Es este volumen, Der Präsensroman, uno de los últimos en aparecer en la serie "Narratologia: Contributions to Narrative Theory", publicada por de Gruyter en Boston y Berlín, con unos volúmenes en inglés y otros en alemán. Yo pertenezco al consejo de redacción pero no he tenido mano en este volumen, sólo en algunos de los publicados en inglés. Éste hace el número 36, pronto saldrá el 40. El índice va así:


Banfield. Ann. "Zeit vergeht. Virginia Woolf, Postimpressionismus und Cambridge-Zeit." In Der Präsensroman. Ed. Armen Avanessian and Anke Hennig. Berlin and Boston: de Gruyter, 2013. 27-78.
Coetzee, J. M. "Zeit, Tempus und Aktionsart in Kafkas Der Bau."  79-100.
Fleischman, Suzanne. "Metalinguistische Funktionen. Erzählen im PRÄSENS."  101-24.
Cohn, Dorrit. "'Ich döse und wache'. Die Normabweichung gleichzeitigen Erzählens."  125-38.
Avanessian, Armen, and Anke Hennig. "Die Evolution des Präsens als Romantempus."  139-80.
Hennig, Anke. "Miniaturen einer Reise. Ivan Bunins ikonisches Präsens."  183-95.
Scheffel, Michael. "Von der unaufhörlichen Gegenwart des 'Großen Rätsels': Wolfgang Hildesheimers Tynset oder 'The End of Fiction'." 196-209.
Kuhn, Roman. "Zweite Person Singular Präsens. Überlegungen zu Ein Mann der schläft von Georges Perec."  210-23.
Wegmann, Thomas. "Beschriebenes beschreiben oder Nach dem Erzählen. Narratologische Anmerkungen zu Elfirde Jelinkes früher Prosa." . 224-36.
Ekardt, Philipp. "Film ohne Star. Alexander Kluges Präsensgeschichte über Asta Nielsen." 237-47.
Linck, Dirck. "'Ich erinnere nicht, ob die Lungen herausgenommen werden': Zur Verwendung des Tempus Präsens bei Hubert Fichte."  248-59.
Avanessian, Armen. "Hören, bis einem das Sehen vergeht: Marcel Beyers Lesen der Vergangenheit."  260-68.

Está en Google Books pero por el momento sin vista parcial del contenido. Son libros caros—126 dólares en Amazon; 89 euros en Iberlibro. Menos mal que a mí me los regalan...

 

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El bañador minimizado 4

miércoles, 25 de septiembre de 2013

El bañador minimizado 4

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Lunes, 06 de Enero de 2014 21:19. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Hарративность фотоблогов (Семиосфера нарратологии)

miércoles, 25 de septiembre de 2013

Hарративность фотоблогов (Семиосфера нарратологии)



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Аннотация: В настоящей статье рассматривается повествовательное измерение персональных фотоблогов с точки зрения нарративной семиотики. Характеризуются как продуманная, так и спонтанная нарративность, а также повествовательные последовательности, создаваемые как медийным пространством, так и зрителями. Автор показывает необходимость изучения фотоблогов как нарративного жанра, проходящего период становления, поскольку данное направление открывает интересную перспективу для нарративно-ориентированной кибертеории. 




—oOo—





Ключевые слова: Блоги, фотоблоги, компьютерно-опосредованная коммуникация, Интернет, изображения, семиотика, нарратология, нарративность, последовательности повествования.




A photo on Flickr

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Lunes, 06 de Enero de 2014 21:22. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Blogs


Llanura helada del mar

jueves, 26 de septiembre de 2013

Llanura helada del mar

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Martes, 07 de Enero de 2014 17:56. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Mi informe de autor de SSRN

jueves, 26 de septiembre de 2013

Mi informe de autor de SSRN

Pasmante es la cantidad de información que me envían los robots del Social Science Research Network sobre la marcha de mis publicaciones allí. El equivalente a unos 200 pantallazos de datos sobre visitas, descargas, citas (que no las hay), etc.

Para su curiosidad, aquí está el último informe, según el cual llego a ubicarme, aupándome de puntillas, en el puesto 1099, de sus más de 230.000 autores académicos—según el criterio de "los más consultados este último año."



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Martes, 07 de Enero de 2014 17:58. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Trabajos


Death Metaphors in Fairy Tales

viernes, 27 de septiembre de 2013

Death Metaphors in Fairy Tales

Me citan mucho, pero en realidad me citan poco.

Me citan en esta tesis de máster, de la Universidad de Barcelona, en italiano. Sobre la narración en los medios digitales:


Scarinci, Alessia. "Digital Storytelling: Un'applicazione didattica per ripensare ai media attraverso i media." MA diss. Dpt. of Communication, U Pompeu Fabra, 2011. Online at e-Repositori (U Pompeu Fabra).*
        http://repositori.upf.edu/handle/10230/11308
    2013

 Y ésta otra del mismo departamento catalán, en catalán.

Cassany Viladomat, Roger. "Especificitats de la narrativa audiovisual informativa a Internet: Anàlisi de les rutines de producció i dels vídeos produïts per La Vanguardia Digital, VilaWeb i 3cat24.cat." MA diss. Dpt. of Communication, U Pompeu Fabra, 2010. Online at e-Repositori (U Pompeu Fabra).*
    http://repositori.upf.edu/handle/10230/11340
    2013

Las dos, dirigidas por Javier Díaz Noci.

Por lo menos hasta ahora no me citan negativamente, en las citas que se me alcanzan a mí y a Google.

Seguiré buscando quien me cite, a ver si mis obras han tenido éxito, mis librillos y libracos enviados a correr el mundo, sin su padre que los proteja, como decía Platón.


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Miércoles, 08 de Enero de 2014 12:01. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Me enlazan


Dog-walking Man

viernes, 27 de septiembre de 2013

Dog-walking Man

Dog-walking Man by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Dog-walking Man, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Miércoles, 08 de Enero de 2014 12:04. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Me enlazan en Washington, D.C.

sábado, 28 de septiembre de 2013

Me enlazan en Washington, DC

Está incluida mi bibliografía, según veo, como libro electrónico, en el catálogo combinado del Consorcio de Bibliotecas de Investigación de Washington (WRLC Catalog)—al que así define su página web:

The Washington Research Library Consortium (WRLC) was established as a non-profit corporation in 1987 to support and enhance the library and information services of universities in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Currently, our partner universities are: 

The WRLC enables the success of learning and scholarship by creating coordinated collections, creating a robust infrastructure for discovery and access, ensuring the long-term preservation of physical and digital information resources and sharing expertise.
  No forma parte de este consorcio otra biblioteca bien conocidad de Washington, que sin embargo es uno de los sitios que me envían más visitas: la Biblioteca del Congreso. Allí está incluida mi bibliografía desde hace ya muchos años en el apartado número nueve (Number Nine...) dedicado a la crítica literaria, de la sala de lectura principal.
Me alegro de aparecer por allí, ya que hace muchos años intenté ir a estudiar a Washington (a Georgetown) sin conseguirlo (—bueno, quería ir sin pagar...). Por fin quiso la Providencia que fuera a Rhode Island en vez de a DC; a Georgetown sólo he vuelto en forma de electrones.

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Miércoles, 08 de Enero de 2014 12:07. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Me enlazan


Cuando el mar se queda quieto

sábado, 28 de septiembre de 2013

Cuando el mar se queda quieto

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Jueves, 09 de Enero de 2014 11:41. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Bibliografía sobre el hipertexto

sábado, 28 de septiembre de 2013

Bibliografía sobre el hipertexto

Me obligan a buscar méritos míos por la Red. Es como apoyatura para un recurso que tengo planteado contra unos ineptos evaluadores de una comisión nacional. Estos, llevados por la envidia, o quizás por la pura malevolencia, o por la ignorancia y la incompetencia sin más, han decidido que mi trabajo no tiene eco o no vale la pena tenerlo en cuenta para darme una evaluación positiva. Así que me veo abocado a la ingrata tarea de decir al juez lo mucho que valgo, y encima apoyarlo documentalmente. Cosa que no crean que es tan fácil como parecería.

En fin, mientras me busco por la red encuentro cosas que no sabía que tenía por allí. Por ejemplo esta bibliografía sobre el hipertexto, procedente de un rinconcito de mi opus magnum en 50 volúmenes y 500.000 versículos. Aquí la reinserto, y así vuelve a casita.



La misma bibliografía puede encontrarse en una web rusa, ZNATE.ru, adornada de iconos típicamente rusos.

Llamaré la atención sobre una de las entradas mías: "Hiperhipertexto"—que pedía o predecía hace muchos años una hipertextualización de todo el texto, combinando enlaces y búsqueda automatizada. Aún estamos camino de ello, pero todo se andará.


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Segundas luces del anochecer

domingo, 29 de septiembre de 2013

Segundas luces del anochecer

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Jueves, 09 de Enero de 2014 11:44. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Novelist Spying on Himself

domingo, 29 de septiembre de 2013

Novelist Spying on Himself

Hoy explicaba en clase de teatro la Teoría de los Marcos. Muy útil es para explicar las relaciones mutuas entre grandes secciones de textos y de constructos semióticos: los marcos pueden reciclarse, crearse o romperse, mezclarse, o transformarse sorpresivamente.

Algunos ejemplos de transiciones súbitas de un marco a otro comentaba yo hace años (¡ocho!) en el post La realidad flojea. Que me sirve de introducción y preliminar para señalar un caso más.

En la última novela de Ian McEwan, Sweet Tooth, tenemos un caso "de libro" de retroactive reframing, de reenmarcado retroactivo por decirlo en lo que debe de ser mi idioma. Es decir, que empezamos habitando la narración en un marco, y terminamos en otro marco. O en el mismo, pero a la vez en otro.

La historia empieza como una narración autobiográfica, autobiografía ficticia of course de Serena Frome, ex-agente secreta de una oficina menor del MI5. Nos cuenta someramente su adolescencia de provincias en casa formal, y luego detalladamente sus amoríos de estudiante con un profesor universitario. Éste, sabremos, había sido reclutado por los espías de Su Majestad, y a su vez la encamina a lo que será su trabajo como secretaria/agente en el MI5. El rollete del profesor con la escultural e ingenua Serena termina en una desagradable escena, que con el tiempo sabremos era un montaje para ahorrarle a ella unos meses de convivencia con el cáncer terminal de él. Retroactiva o retrospectivamente, también saldrá eso a la luz. 

Tras una temporada de celibato y oficina y archivos e informes, le encomiendan a Serena que seleccione autores políticamente correctos (anticomunistas) que serán "becados" por así decirlo por el MI5, discretamente y a través de una fundación cultural, sin que ellos lo sepan. Serena mea donde come, y no sólo recluta al novelista Tom Haley, liberándolo de su puesto de precario en la universidad, sino que empieza una aventura de final indefinido con él. Pero le oculta su trabajo y la procedencia del dinero que se chafan. Todo esto lo hace con cierta inocencia espontánea, por chocante que parezca decirlo así, siendo la chica una espía de tacón de aguja.

Bien, al final un colega celoso y despechado revela la verdad a Tom Haley, y también la ventila por los periódicos, hundiendo la participación de Tom y de Serena en el programa (que se llamaba Sweet Tooth, como la novela). Serena se ve en los periódicos y acude a una entrevista con Tom Haley, segura de que será la ruptura definitiva.

Y allí es cuando se abre la trampilla falsa de la narración, y se reorganiza retroactivamente la novela.

Es una estructura narrativa paradójica que parece atraer especialmente a McEwan. En parte recuerda al final de Expiación, al mostrar cómo toda la obra ha sido escrita por uno de los personajes—lo que se suele llamar una novela autogenerada o self-begetting novel. Claro que esta novela ya había sido escrita por uno de los personajes, Serena, pues se presenta desde el principio como sus memorias ficticias (reales para ella, ficticias para nosotros, puesto que McEwan no la publica con pseudónimo ni la llama otra cosa que novela). Lo que sucede aquí, en el último capítulo, es que la autoría pasa súbita y retroactivamente, de Serena a Tom Haley, y las memorias ficticiamente auténticas se convierten en una novela que las imita perfectamente—o quizá no... y la novela de McEwan se convierte en una novela más experimental de lo que parecía en un principio, pues genera unas dialécticas algo paradójicas en torno a la autoría de lo que hemos leído.
high heels

El último capítulo (cap. 22) de Sweet Tooth está narrado, intradiegéticamente, por Tom Haley. Es una carta dirigida a Serena, y que ella encuentra en la cocina de su casa, encima de un paquete cerrado. Con la lectura de la carta concluye el libro, con lo cual  podría ser que concluyese con la memoria escrita por Serena. En puridad, no sabemos si abrió el paquete siquiera, o no. Ahora bien, lo que contiene ese paquete cerrado es, quizá, la propia novela Sweet Tooth, o quizá una versión preliminar de la misma. En la carta, Tom Haley le cuenta a Serena cómo, al enterarse de que "salía con una espía", decidió vengarse en sus propios términos, espiándola a ella... bien a conciencia, desde dentro. Y lo ha hecho por el procedimiento de escribir la historia en la que se han visto envueltos, desde el punto de vista de Serena:


Now I knew what you knew, what you had to conceal, I tried to imagine being you, being in two places at once, loving and  . . . reporting back. How could I get in there and report back too? And that was it. I saw it. So simple. This story wasn't for me to tell. It was for you. Your job was to report back to me. I had to get out of my skin and into yours. I needed to be translated, to be a transvestite, to shoehorn myself into your skirts and high heels, into your knickers, and carry your white glossy handbag on its shoulder strap. On my shoulder. Then start talking, as you. Did I know you well enough? Clearly not. Was I a good enough ventriloquist? Only one way to find out. I had to begin. I took from my pocket my letter to you and tore it up, and let the bits drift down into the darkness of the Avon Gorge. Then I hurried back across the bridge, eventually waved down a taxi and spent that New Year's Eve and part of the next day in my hotel room filling another exercise book, trying your voice.  (357-58)

Pocas veces se habrá descrito tan vívidamente el acto de "travestismo" imaginativo que supone para un escritor masculino el crear personajes femeninos y hacerlos hablar; desde luego es un concepto generado por una fantasía extremadamente heterosexualista, más que heterosexual. Pasa Tom Haley a detallar cómo encontró un refinamiento especial del erotismo fingiendo ante Serena que no sabía nada—un placer intelectual y sensual a la vez haciendo el amor con ella sabiendo que la estaba espiando, un sentimiento de división interna que multiplicaba sus placeres al anticipar la manera en que luego describiría "desde fuera", o desde ella, la escena que ahora vivían. Hay aquí algo de voyeurismo, o incluso de auto-voyeurismo. Tom se precia de añadir "un pliegue más al tejido del engaño", y lo curioso es que en la carta plantea ese engaño como una experiencia intensificada de inmersión en el otro. 


Vemos aquí  un tratamiento novelístico interesante de un fenómeno que han estudiado Goffman y otros en la constitución interaccional de la subjetividad—la interacción de perspectivas de los sujetos, o, podríamos llamarlo así, la creación del yo mediante la interiorización de la alteridad. Más detalles al respecto doy en este artículo sobre la interacción internalizada, y en este otro comentario sobre un libro de Goffman cuyas observaciones suscribirían sin duda Serena y Tom—pues su tesis es que todos somos espías en la vida cotidiana. Lo llamo Teoría paranoica de la observación mutua. Sweet Tooth es, por tanto, una novela de espías, pero también del escritor como espía, del escribir como espiar, y del espionaje y disimulo diario que van mezclados en la inocente convivencia cotidiana con los demás, empezando por nuestras parejas.

Por eso es adecuada la estructura metaficcional del libro—no sabemos si lo ha escrito Tom, o si lo ha escrito Serena. Parece que se privilegia la perspectiva de Tom, y que lo que hemos leído es "la narración de Serena tal como la inventa Tom." Ahora bien, es necesario ingrediente para el plan del libro que la ambigüedad se mantenga, y que las perspectivas de ambos estén entrelazadas de modo paradójico e inextricable, a marriage of fictional minds más que a marriage of true minds. Chapeau al escritor que lo consiga, y McEwan lo consigue. De este modo, Serena nos da su versión de Tom, y Tom su versión de Serena, en una máquina generativa de impresiones que nos permite suponer, tras la lectura de la novela, mucho más que un cortejo complicado y un matrimonio interesante; inevitablemente lleva a releer la novela en el sentido al menos de reevaluarla retroactivamente de modo que muchos elementos de su narración realista adquieren ahora un sentido o multiplicado, o ambiguo, o paradójico.

Uno de esos elementos es la propia autorrepresentación del autor. —Y no me refiero sólo a Serena, o a Tom, sino a McEwan. Está claro que algunos de los elementos de la escritura de Tom recuerdan al propio McEwan—por ejemplo la historia del chimpancé, parecida a un relato de In Between the Sheets, o el curioso cuento de los gemelos. (Algún relato más bien recuerda a Cormac McCarthy, como la distopía post-apocalíptica que gana el Premio Jane Austen). Habría que saber qué elementos de reflexión sobre el sistema de premios o promociones en Gran Bretaña le ha llevado a McEwan a escribir esta novela—pues buena parte de su temática es el control a distancia de la creación y el éxito literarios por parte de los poderes y los servicios de inteligencia—salen a colación los casos de Encounter, de Orwell, etc. Algo de exorcismo tiene la novela en este sentido, y de aserción de la libertad de creación del novelista, por el hecho mismo de tratar el tema, y tratarlo de esta manera. 


Pero al margen de esto, en la autorrepresentación del autor está incluido el asunto del autor como figura erótica, visto desde fuera, desde Serena. Hay aquí una cierta dosis de autofascinación, o del experimento en erotismo complicado que decíamos antes, ver cómo la propia imagen está envuelta en las fantasías que tenemos con los demás, y cómo fingimos inocencia al respecto. Nos miramos por el ojo de la cerradura de los demás, como Tom Haley hace con Serena, como McEwan hace con sus personajes. Apunta la novela, esto es, cómo lejos de espiar sólo a los demás, también los espiamos para encontrar allí reflejos nuestros. Cómo nos espiamos hasta a nosotros mismos, disimulando para no enterarnos, cuando fingimos espiar a los demás... —más allá de la vida de los otros, es la vida de esos otros otros que somos nosotros mismos.

____

García Landa, José Angel. "Somos teatreros." Ibercampus (Vanity Fea) 9 Sept. 2009.*
    http://www.ibercampus.es/articulos.asp?idarticulo=14466
    2013
Goffman, Erving. Strategic Interaction. (Conduct and Communication, 1). Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P,  cop. 1969. 2nd pr., 1970.
Kellman, Steven. The Self-Begetting Novel. London: Macmillan, 1980.





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The House of Rumour

domingo, 29 de septiembre de 2013

The House of Rumour


O la Red Social de la Información en el siglo catorce—la Internet medieval.
El poema alegórico de Chaucer The House of Fame concluye con un episodio en el que el poeta viaja, en su sueño, desde la Casa de la Fama a la Casa del Rumor, en busca de noticias, curiosidades y cotilleo. Esta Casa del Rumor, paraíso de la sobreinformación, de la fiebre por la actualidad, de la rumorología, y de la polilogia inabarcable, es pintada aquí de manera vívida y memorable. Aunque me parece que ha hallado su encarnación propia y definitiva en la red que nos ocupa ahora. Y de hecho Chaucer describe la Casa del Rumor como un laberinto reticular, una especie de gran maraña móvil hecha de mimbres enlazados, que rueda dando tumbos de aquí para allá, atravesada por vientos y susurros, una red inestable de voces e innovaciones. Por eso considero que Chaucer vio en su sueño ondas del futuro, que ya se sabe tiende a llevar a un extremo lo que en el pasado parecía exageración o parodia—los mentideros de palacio o de la City del siglo XIV se quedan chiquitos hoy, pero algo prometían ya. Aqui hay un pasaje sobre el recalentamiento de la información y los memes víricos que puede considerarse uno de los pasajes clásicos al respecto. La alegoría del Rumor, claro, tiene antecedentes al menos desde el libro IV de la Eneida.


But such a congregatioun
Of folk, as I saw roam about,
Some within and some without,
Was never seen, nor shall be eft,*                *again, hereafter
That, certes, in the world n' is* left                      *is not
So many formed by Nature,
Nor dead so many a creature,
That well unnethes* in that place                         *scarcely
Had I a foote breadth of space;
And ev'ry wight that I saw there
Rown'd* evereach in other's ear                          *whispered
A newe tiding privily,
Or elles told all openly
Right thus, and saide, "Know'st not thou
What is betid,* lo! righte now?"                          *happened
"No," quoth he; "telle me what."
And then he told him this and that,
And swore thereto, that it was sooth;
"Thus hath he said," and "Thus he do'th,"
And "Thus shall 't be," and "Thus heard I say
"That shall be found, that dare I lay;"*                     *wager
That all the folk that is alive
Have not the cunning to descrive*                         *describe
The thinges that I hearde there,
What aloud, and what in th'ear.
But all the wonder most was this;
When one had heard a thing, y-wis,
He came straight to another wight,
And gan him tellen anon right
The same tale that to him was told,
Or it a furlong way was old,
And gan somewhat for to eche*                             *eke, add
To this tiding in his speech,
More than it ever spoken was.
And not so soon departed n'as*                                 *was
He from him, than that he met
With the third; and *ere he let
Any stound,* he told him als';           *without delaying a momen*
Were the tidings true or false,
Yet would he tell it natheless,
And evermore with more increase
Than it was erst.* Thus north and south                   *at first
Went ev'ry tiding from mouth to mouth,
And that increasing evermo',
As fire is wont to *quick and go*        *become alive, and spread*
From a spark y-sprung amiss,
Till all a city burnt up is.
And when that it was full up-sprung,
And waxen* more on ev'ry tongue                          *increased
Than e'er it was, it went anon
Up to a window out to go'n;
Or, but it mighte thereout pass,
It gan creep out at some crevass,*                  *crevice, chink
And fly forth faste for the nonce.
And sometimes saw I there at once
*A leasing, and a sad sooth saw,*       *a falsehood and an earnest
That gan *of adventure* draw true saying* *by chance
Out at a window for to pace;
And when they metten in that place,
They were checked both the two,
And neither of them might out go;
For other so they gan *to crowd,*       *push, squeeze, each other*
Till each of them gan cryen loud,
"Let me go first!" -- "Nay, but let me!
And here I will ensure thee,
With vowes, if thou wilt do so,
That I shall never from thee go,
But be thine owen sworen brother!
We will us medle* each with other,                          *mingle
That no man, be he ne'er so wroth,
Shall have one of us two, but both
At ones, as *beside his leave,*                *despite his desire*
Come we at morning or at eve,
Be we cried or *still y-rowned."*               *quietly whispered*
Thus saw I false and sooth, compouned,*                 *compounded
Together fly for one tiding.
Then out at holes gan to wring*                  *squeeze, struggle
Every tiding straight to Fame;
And she gan give to each his name
After her disposition,
And gave them eke duration,
Some to wax and wane soon,
As doth the faire white moon;
And let them go. There might I see
Winged wonders full fast flee,
Twenty thousand in a rout,*                                *company
As Aeolus them blew about.
And, Lord! this House in alle times
Was full of shipmen and pilgrimes,
With *scrippes bretfull of leasings,*   *wallets brimful of falsehoods*
house of fame
Entremedled with tidings*                             *true stories
And eke alone by themselve.
And many thousand times twelve
Saw I eke of these pardoners,
Couriers, and eke messengers,
With boistes* crammed full of lies                           *boxes

As ever vessel was with lyes.*                        *lees of wine
And as I altherfaste* went                          *with all speed
About, and did all mine intent
Me *for to play and for to lear,*        *to amuse and instruct myself*

And eke a tiding for to hear
That I had heard of some country,
That shall not now be told for me; --
For it no need is, readily;
Folk can sing it better than I.
For all must out, or late or rath,*                           *soon
All the sheaves in the lath;*                            *barn
I heard a greate noise withal
In a corner of the hall,
Where men of love tidings told;
And I gan thitherward behold,
For I saw running ev'ry wight
As fast as that they hadde might,
And ev'reach cried, "What thing is that?"
And some said, "I know never what."
And when they were all on a heap,
Those behinde gan up leap,
And clomb* upon each other fast,                      *climbed
And up the noise on high they cast,
And trodden fast on others' heels,
And stamp'd, as men do after eels...



En este caos termina el poema de Chaucer, apenas sosegado por la visión inacabada de "un hombre de gran autoridad" con la que se interrumpe el poema. Aquí está el poema completo, y aquí unas referencias bibliográficas sobre el tema de la fama y del Rumor y sus precedentes en las fuentes de Chaucer. La ilustración viene de  sobre ediciones e ilustraciones de Chaucer. En la red.



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Hermenéutica de la Relectura Retrospectiva

domingo, 29 de septiembre de 2013

Hermenéutica de la relectura retrospectiva

Una ponencia del año 96 del siglo pasado—"Understanding Misreading: Hermenéutica de la relectura retrospectiva." En español, y ahora en ResearchGate, donde estoy completando mi colección de viejos artículos. En inglés apareció en un libro editado por la Dra. Penas, The Pragmatics of Understanding and Misunderstanding (Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza, 1998), 57-72.

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The Canterbury Tales

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.


The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer's most celebrated work probably designed about 1387 and extending to 17,000 lines in prose and verse of various metres (though the predominant form is the rhyming couplet). The General Prologue describes the meeting of 29 pilgrims in the Tabard Inn in Southwark (in fact they add up to 31; it has been suggested that the prioress's 'preestes three' in line 164 may be an error since only one 'Nun's Priest' is mentioned in the body of the work). Detailed pen-pictures are given of 21 of them, vividly described but perhaps corresponding to traditional lists of the orders of society, clerical and lay (see J. Mann, Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire, 1973). The host (see BAILLY) proposes that the pilgrims should shorten the road by telling four stories each, two on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back; he will accompany them and award a free supper on their return to the teller of the best story. The work is incomplete; only 23 pilgrims tell stories, and there are only 24 stories told altogether (Chaucer tells two). In the scheme the stories are linked by narrative exchanges between the pilgrims and by prologues and epilogues to the tales; but this aspect of the work is also very incomplete. It is uncertain even, in what order the stories are meant to come; the evidence of the manuscripts and of geographical references is conflicting, as is the scholarly interpretation of that evidence. The order that follows is that of the Ellesmere manuscipt, followed in the best complete edition of Chaucer, The Riverside Chaucer, (ed. L. D. Benson et al., 1988).

(1) 'The Knight's Tale', a shortened version of the Teseida of Boccaccio, the story of the love of Palamon and Arcite (told again in Shakespeare's The Two Noble Kinsmen), prisoners of Theseus king of Athens, for Emelyie, sister of Hippolyta queen of the Amazons, whom Theseus has married.  The rivals compete for her in a tournament. Palamon is defeated, but Arcite, the favourite of Mars, at the moment of his triumph is thrown and injured by his horse through the intervention of Venus and Saturn, and dies. Palamon and Emelye, after prolonged mourning for Arcite, are united. Riverside follows the Ellesmere division of the tale into four parts, but it is not so divided in all the manuscripts. An interesting interpretation of the tale as ironic is given by Terry Jones in Chaucer's Knight (1978).chaucer knights tale 2

(2) 'The Miller's Tale', a ribald story of the deception, first of a husband (a carpenter) through the prediction of a second flood, and secondly of a lover who expects to kiss the lady's lips but kisses instead her 'nether eye'. He avenges himself on her lover for this humiliation with a red-hot ploughshare. The Tale has been said to be a parody of a courtly-love story.

(3) 'The Reeve's Tale' is a fabliau about two clerks who are robbed by a miller of some of the meal which they take to his mill to be ground, and who take their vengeance by sleeping with the miller's wife and daughter. There are two manuscript versions of a French analogue in Bryan and Dempster, Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1941), 126-47, 'Le Meunier et les II clers'. In Chaucer's context, it is an obvious rejoinder to the miller's tale of the duping of a carpenter, the reeve's profession.

(4) 'The Cook's Tale' of Perkyn Revelour only extends to 58 lines before it breaks off. It is another ribald fabliau which ends with the introduction of a prostitute, and it has been suggested that Chaucer may have decided that the occurrence of three indecent tales together was unbalanced. The tale of Gamelyn, not by Chaucer, is introduced for the cook in some manuscripts. The cook himself, Roger (by nickname traditionally Hodge) of Ware (l. 4336), has been identified with an attested cook of that name. See Riverside, p. 814.

(5) 'The Man of Law's Tale' is the story of Constance, daughter of a Christian emperor of Rome, who marries the sultan of Syria on condition that he become a Christian and who is cast adrift on a boat because of the machinations of the sultan's jealous mother. It is a frequently told medieval story, paralleled by the romance Emaré and by Gower's Constance story in Confessio Amantis, ii. 587ff.; there is argument about the priority of Chaucer's and Gower's versions. It is certain, at least, that Chaucer's is based on a passage in the early 14th-cent. Anglo-Norman Chronicle by Trivet. Both Trivet's and Gower's versions are in Bryan and Dempster.

(6) 'The Wife of Bath's Tale' is preceded by an 856-line prologue in which she condemns celibacy by describing her life with her five late husbands, in the course of which Chaucer draws widely on the medieval anti-feminist tradition, especially on Jean de Meun's La Vielle (the Duenna) in the Roman de la Rose. After this vigorous, learned, and colourful narrative, the folowing tale, though appropriate, seems rather flat. It is the story of 'the loathly lady' (paralleled by Gower's 'Tale of Florent' in Confessio Amantis, i. 1396 ff., and by the romance Weddynge of Sir Gawen and Dame Ragnell, edited in D. B. Sands, Middle English Verse Romances, 323-47) in which a knight is asked to answer the question, 'what do women most desire?' The correct answer, 'sovereignty', is told him by a hideous old witch on condition that he marry her; when he does she is restored to youth and beauty. Since Kittredge (Chaucer and His Poetry, 1915, 185 ff.) it has generally been thought that this Prologue-Tale sets in motion a discussion of marriage, 'The Marriage Group', which is taken up (after interruptions) by the clerk, the merchant, and the franklin (see 9, 10, 12 below).

(7) 'The Friar's Tale' tells how a summoner meets the devil dressed as a yeoman and they agree to share out what they are given. They come upon a carter who curses his horse, commending it to the devil; the summoner asks the devil why he does not take the horse thus committed to him and the devil replies that it is because the commendation does not come from the heart. Later they visit an old woman from whom the summoner attempts to extort twelve pence, whereupon she commends him to the devil. The devil carries him off to hell because her curse was from the heart. The story is widely attested in popular tradition, and its motif is referred to as ex corde, 'from the heart'. Chaucer's exact source is not known, but it is clear that the firar tells it to enrage the summoner on the pilgrimage, who interrupts the narrative and rejoins with a scurrilous and discreditable story about a friar.

(8) The Summoner's Tale' tells of a greedy friar who undertakes to divide a deathbed legacy amongst his community; he receives a fart and has to devise an ingenious stratagem to divide it with perfect justice.

(9) 'The Clerk's Tale', which the poet tells us he took from Petrarch, was translated into Latin by the latter from the Italian version of Boccaccio in The Decameron (Day 10, Tale 10). Boccaccio was the first writer (in 1353) to take the story from popular currency, and there are several versions of the story in Italian, Latin, and French before Chaucer's (indeed it is clear that Chaucer's version is rather more dependent on a French prose version than on Petrarch's Latin). The story tells of patient Griselda and her trials by her husband, the Marquis Walter. Chaucer's version has more hints of criticism in the relentless husband than any of his predecessors (except Boccaccio, whose narrator frowns on Gualtieri's 'strange desire' to try his wife's obedience). Apologists for 'The Marriage Group' (see 6 above) regard the tale as a response to the wife of Bath, partly because the Clerk concludes with an expression of good will towards her (IV. 1170 ff.).

(10) 'The Merchant's Tale', in which the merchant, prompted by the tale of Griselda's extreme obedience, tells his 'Tale' of January and May, the old husband with his young wife, and the problems with obedient fidelity involved in this relationship. After a lengthy review of the pros and cons of taking a young wife, January ignores the good advice of Justinus in favour of the time serving opinion of Placebo and marries May. When he goes blind she makes love to her suitor Damyan in a pear-tree round which January wraps his arms. Pluto mischievously restores January's sight at this point, but Proserpine inspires May to explain that the restoration of his sight was brought about by her activities in the pear-tree and that this had been their purpose. Critics have argued about the relative proportions of mordancy and humour in the tale; see E. Talbot Donaldson in Speaking of Chaucer (1970), 30-45. There are parallels to the various sections of the story in French, Latin, Italian, and German (see D. S. Brewer (ed.), Medieval Comic Tales, 1973, German no. 3 and Latin, (o)).

(11) 'The Squire's Tale', of Cambuscan, king of Tartary, to whom on his birthday an envoy from the king of Arabia brings magic gifts, including a ring for the king's daughter Canacee, which enables her to understand the language of birds. A female falcon tells Canacee the story of her own desertion by a tercelet. The tale is incomplete but it seems likely that Chaucer meant to finish it, judging from the fact that there is no suggestion that it is unfinished in the laudatory words of the franklin that follow it (V. 673 ff.). The precise origin of the tale is unknown, but a number of parallels are suggested by H. S. V. Jones in Bryan and Dempster, pp. 357-76.

(12) 'The Franklin's Tale', of Dorigen, wife of Arveragus, who to escape the attentions of her suitor, the squire Aurelius, makes her consent depend upon an impossible condition, that all the rocks on the coast of Brittany be removed. When this condition is realized by the aid of a magician, the suitor, from a generous remorse, releases her from her promise. Chaucer states that the tale is taken from a 'breton lay', but if this is true, the original is lost. There are a number of parallels in medieval literature, of which the closest is Boccaccio's Il filocolo, Question  4. See N. R. Hayely, Chaucer's Boccaccio (1980).

(13) 'The Physician's Tale' tells of Virginia who, at her own request, is killed by her father to escape the designs of the corrupt judge Appius. The original source is Livy's History, and this is what Chaucer cites, though his version seems to rely principally on the Roman de la rose, ll. 5589-658, by Jean de Meun.

(14) 'The Pardoner's Tale' follows a prologue in which he declares his own covetousness, and takes covetousness as its theme, relating it to other sins: drunkenness, gluttony, gambling, and swearing. Three rioters set out to find Death who has killed their companion; a mysterious old man tells them they will find him under a particular tree, but when they get there they find instead a heap of gold. By aiming to cheat each other in possessing the gold they kill each other. The character of the pardoner in the prologue here is related to Faus Semblant (False Seeming) in Jean de Meun's part of the Roman de la Rose, ll. 11065-972 (a section corresponding to the Middle English Romaunt of the Rose, Fragment C, lines 67061 ff.: Robinson, pp. 621 ff.). There are many analogues for the tale, in Latin, Italian, and German, but Chaucerr's exact source, if he had one, is not known.

(15) 'The Shipman's Tale.' There is a similar story in The Decameron (Day 8, Tale 1). The wife of a niggardly merchant asks the loan of a hundred francs from a priest to buy finery. The priest borrows the sum from the merchant and hands it to the wife, and the wife grants him her favours. On the merchant's return from a journey the priest tells him that he has repaid the sum to the wife, who cannot deny receiving it.

(16) 'The Prioress's Tale' tells of the murder of a child by Jews because he sings a Marian hymn while passing through their quarter and of the discovery of his body because of its continued singing of the hymn after death. There are a great many parallels for the story. Some critics, perhaps anachronistically, see the bland anti-Semitism of the story as a comment on the uncritical nature of the prioress.

(17) 'Chaucer's Tale of Sir Thopas' is a witty and elegant parody of the contemporary romance, both in its subject and in the insubstantiality of its tail-rhyme form. Its butts are no doubt general, but it can perhaps be taken to have special reference to the heroes it catalogues (VII. 898-900): Horn Child, the legend of Ypotys, Bevis of Hampton, Guy of Warwick, the unidentified Pleyndamour, and Libeaus Desconus. It is closest, it has been argued, to the last of these.

(18) When the Host interrupts the tale of Sir Thopas, Chaucer moves to the opposite extreme with a heavy prose homily, 'The Tale of Melibeus'. This story of the impetuous Melibeus and his wise wife Prudence dates from Italy in the 1240s, when the story was written in Latin prose for his third son by Albertano of Brescia. Chaucer's immediate source was the 1336 version in French prose by Renaud de Louens.Chaucer Knights Tale

(19) 'The Monk's Tale' is composed of a number of 'tragedies' of persons fallen from high estate, taken from different authors and arranged on the model of Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium. The tale is in eight-line stanzas.

(20) 'The Nun's Priest's Tale' is related to the French cycle of Renart (see Reynard), telling of a fox that beguiled a cock by praising his father's singing and was in turn beguiled by him into losing him by pausing to boast at his victory. The mock-heroic story is full of rhetoric and exempla, and it is one of the most admired of the Tales, regarded as the most typically 'Chaucerian' in tone and content.  The fable is very familiar, but the parallels to Chaucer's treatment of it are not very close. The famous ending of the tale invites the reader to 'take the morality' of the Tale in spite of its apparent lightness of substance, on the grounds that St Paul says everything has some moral; this invitation has been taken with surprising solemnity by many critics.

(21) 'The Second Nun's Tale', in rhyme-royal, is perhaps translated from the life of St Cecilia in the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine. It describes the miracles and martyrdom of the noble Roman maiden Cecilia and her husband Valerian.

(22) 'The Canon's Yeoman's Tale' is told by a character who joins the pilgrims at this late stage (VIII. 554 ff.) with his master, the dubious canon whose alchemical skills the yeoman praises. The first 200 lines of the tale tell of the Alchemist's arcane practice and its futility, before proceeding to the tale proper which tales of how an alchemical canon (who is not his master, he protests, perhaps suggesting that it is) tricks a priest out of £40 by pretending to teach him the art of making precious metals. The dishonesty of the alchemists was much discussed and condemned in the 14th cent.; there is a close analogue to Chaucer's story in one of the Novelle of Sercambi (included in Bryan and Dempster, pp. 694-5). The most significant literary parallel, of course, is Jonson's The Alchemist.

(23) 'The Manciple's Tale' is the fable of the tell-tale crow, told by many authors from Ovid in Metamorphoses (2. 531-62) onwards. Phebus (Phoebus) has a crow which is white and can speak. It reveals to Phebus the infidelity of his wife (nameless in Chaucer, but Coronis in Ovid and most of the writers who follow him) and Phebus kills her in a rage. Then, in remorse, he plucks out the crow's white feathers, deprives it of speech and throws it 'unto the devel', which is why crows are now black. A very similar version of the story is told in Gower's Confessio Amantis (iii. 768-835), and there are other examples by Guillaume de Machaut and in the Ovide moralisé (c. 1324). As well as these, J. A. Work in Bryan and Dempster edits as analogues a story from The Seven Sages of Rome which does not name Phebus and which exchanges the fates of wife and bird, as well as some sententious parallels from Boethius and Jean de Meun.

(24) 'The Parson's Tale' which concludes the work (and was, no doubt, meant to, even if the main body of the Tales is incomplete) is a long prose treatise, ostensibly on Penitence but dealing at most length with the Seven Deadly Sins. The two principal sources are Raymund de Pennaforte's Summa (dating from the 1220s) for the sections on Penitence, and Guilielmus Peraldu's Summa Vitiorum (probably from the 1250s) for the Seven Deadly Sins.

Most manuscripts have 'The Parson's Tale' leading straight into Chaucer's closing 'Retracciouns' in which he takes leave of his book. He asks forgiveness of God for his 'translacions and enditynges of worldly vanities', including 'The Tales of Caunterbury, thilke that sownen into [i.e. tend towards] synne'. But this rhetorical conclusion need not be read as a revocation of his work by the poet; following St Augustine's Retractationes, many medieval works end by distancing the writer from the non-spiritual elements in his work: the Author's Epilogue in The Decameron and Chaucer's Troilus are other familiar examples. See N. F. Blake, The Canterbury Tales, Edited from the Hengwrt Manuscript (1980); H. Cooper, The Canterbury Tales (1989). Also an edition by V. A. Kolve and G. Olsen (1989).



 

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Looking at Me

lunes, 30 de septiembre de 2013

Looking at Me

Looking at Me by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Looking at Me, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Lunes, 13 de Enero de 2014 16:43. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Solicitud documentación sexenios

lunes, 30 de septiembre de 2013

SOLICITUD DOCUMENTACIÓN SEXENIOS

Estimados compañeros:

Estoy llevando a los tribunales la no concesión de un sexenio por parte de la CNEAI (en 2012). No me importa reconocer que no me lo concedieron, por la notable arbitrariedad de la actuación de la comisión (en esta como en otras ocasiones) y porque ya tengo tres anteriores, y méritos suficientes para este también.

Desearía que alguna persona que quiera avenirse a apoyar esta demanda me ayude si se da el caso siguiente:

QUE SE LE HAYA INFORMADO FAVORABLEMENTE EN ALGUN CASO UNA PUBLICACION ESCRITA EN ESPAÑOL.

Una de mis contribuciones estaba en español, aunque publicada en una serie multilingüe alemana—también estaba traducida al inglés, cosa que la comisión ignora olímpicamente, por cierto.— Pero lo que me irritó sobremanera es que en la respuesta a mi recurso, se reafirmó la comisión en que no es aceptable el uso del español como lengua de investigación, aclarando además que el uso de la lengua española perjudica a la difusión del artículo tanto fuera COMO DENTRO de España. Así.

Evidentemente es un criterio no usado en otros casos, empezando por las publicaciones de la propia presidenta de la comisión y otros miembros de la misma. Ahora bien, quizá entienda la comisión que los profesores de Filología Inglesa, a diferencia de los de otras filologías, no podemos usar el español en nuestras publicaciones sin ser penalizados (contradiciendo, por cierto, a la Constitución). Por eso solicito que si alguien puede proporcionarme documentación al respecto, me la envíe lo antes posible. Le estaría muy agradecido, gane o no el recurso.

Se trataría de enviarme copia de la documentación en que se acredita la valoración positiva de un sexenio, habiendo sometido a evaluación en esa ocasión publicaciones escritas en español. El tema sólo figurará en el expediente judicial y no se harán públicos datos ni nombres.

Comprendo que no es fácil que haya constancia documental clara de estos hechos, dada la falta de transparencia de la CNEAI (en el caso de evaluaciones positivas especialmente), pero envío esta circular por si alguien se anima y puede enviarme algo para incluirlo en el expediente.

Y, si no, por lo menos que conozcáis esta actuación bochornosa para con la lengua española, por parte de una comisión supuestamente "nacional".

Un saludo muy cordial

José Angel García Landa
Universidad de Zaragoza


Este mensaje lo envío hoy a la lista de AEDEAN. Como otras veces, me lo devuelven por "no estar autorizado a enviar mensajes a esta lista" aunque sí soy miembro de AEDEAN. En fin, entre tanto se resuelve el tema, aquí dejo constancia del Caso.

El recurso, aclaro, lo doy por perdido de antemano, conociendo perfectamente cómo funcionan estas cosas y cómo respira nuestra judicatura. Tampoco me enviará nadie nada, por cierto.



_____


Me contesta la administradora de la lista de AEDEAN: 

Acaba de entrar un mensaje tuyo a través de tu cuenta de la universidad sin problemas. Me temo, sin embargo, que no será distribuido dado que la política de la Junta Directiva de AEDEAN es la de no distribuir mensajes que no se ajusten a la función de la lista, que es la de dar difusión a publicaciones, Calls for Papers, anuncios de actividades culturales, conferencias y seminarios, másters, o avisos sobre la convocatoria de plazas o becas.
  

Un saludo,
Belén Méndez Naya
Universidad de Santiago de Compostela

Y le respondo:

Estimada Belén:
Son cuestiones muy restringidas para una lista de correo electrónico, las que señalas en tu mensaje. En fin, allá AEDEAN con su política de comunicaciones; a mí me entran cada vez más tentaciones de borrarme de la asociación. Es un uso muy pobre el de los medios de comunicación por parte de una asociación académica el que no permite actividades como el debate, la crítica, el intercambio de opiniones, o siquiera una reflexión o información sobre en qué idioma es legítimo o aceptable el realizar sus actividades.   Y te ruego que lleves a la directiva esta reflexión: ¿Por qué puede anunciarse en la lista la publicación de un libro, obtenible previo pago, pero no puede emitirse una opinión? O, si nos atenemos a lo que dices, tampoco se podría difundir ese mismo texto, sino sólo anunciarlo. ¿Puede informarse en la lista que el español no se considera lengua de investigación por la CNEAI, eliminando mi solicitud de documentación, o sería esa información también inaceptable según vuestro criterio de filtrado de mensajes? Propongo asimismo que en el próximo congreso se organice una mesa redonda o debate sobre la política de comunicaciones de la asociación. No estaría de más, y se tratan con frecuencia temas mucho menos relevantes.
Un saludo,

Jose Angel García Landa


¿Qué decir de AEDEAN a estas alturas? ¿Que ejerce la censura selectivamente, por ejemplo?  Conmigo, bastante lo ha hecho. ¿Que es una asociación-pantalla, plantada ahí para detener el debate e impedir la comunicación entre sus miembros, más que para ser un foro de debate y comunicación? 
 

Lo dicho—no sé qué hago que no me borro de ahí. Por la vana esperanza de que (como pasa con los partidos políticos) reaccionen los miembros contra estas directivas que "toman" la asociación y la tuercen hacia sus intereses, apartándolas de sus fines originarios sin los cuales no tienen sentido. A AEDEAN los medios electrónicos le han venido muy grandes siempre; lo suyo son los libros de actas y las circulares en papel. Ya el siglo pasado les dije en un congreso que tenían que hacer sus publicaciones en formato electrónico, en la red y en acceso abierto. Supongo que les debí parecer un orate, a la Junta Directiva.



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Lunes, 13 de Enero de 2014 16:45. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Quejas






A Look at Myself

viernes, 4 de octubre de 2013

A look at myself

A look at myself by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
A look at myself, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 09:11. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Alea jacta erit

martes, 1 de octubre de 2013

Alea jacta erit

Una conferencia patrocinada por Project Narrative:

Mark Currie
"
Alea Jacta Erit: Narrative in a Random Universe" 

Monday, October 7, 2013 - 4:00pm

Rosa M. Ailabouni Room
  


How can we relate ideas about uncertainty, unpredictability and randomness to the study of narrative? This lecture approaches the question through one of the most tenacious metaphors in the thinking about temporality – the roll of a dice. It sketches a general context of thought about contingency in the predictive sciences and a more particular account of the way that contingency and futurity have figured in new debates in the humanities in recent years. The argument then turns to the commingling of epistemic stances that are involved in the temporal structure of narrative fiction and the process of narrative comprehension. It aims to show that the dynamic of certainty and uncertainty that structures narrative involves a non-synthetic alternation between futurity and completion which finds its philosophical basis in the motif of the future anterior: not alea jacta est, but alea jacta erit.


Mark Currie is Professor at Queen Mary University of London. He is the author of Postmodern Narrative Theory (1998; Second Edition 2011), Difference (2004), About Time: Narrative Fiction and the Philosophy of Time (2007), The Unexpected: Narrative Temporality and the Philosophy of Surprise (2012) and The Invention of Deconstruction (2013).



—A relacionar con la temática de la retrospección y hindsight bias que tanto me ocupa.

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 08:59. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Semiótica


Edmund Spenser

martes, 1 de octubre de 2013

Edmund Spenser

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:

SPENSER, Edmund (c. 1552-99), the elder son of John Spenser, who was probably related to the Spencers of Althorp, and was described as a journeyman in the art of cloth-making. Edmund Spenser was probably bonr in East Smithfield, London, and was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, under Mulcaster, and Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. In 1569, while still at Cambridge, he contributed a number of 'Visions' and sonnets, from Petrarch and du Bellay, to van der Noodt's Theatre for Worldlings. To the 'greener times' of his youth belong also the 'Hymne in Honour of Love' and that of 'Beautie' (not published until 1596), which reflect his study of Neoplatonism. After possibly spending some time in the north, he became secretary to John Young, bishop of Rochester, in 1578, and in 1579, through his college friend G. Harvey, obtained a place in Leicester's household. There he became acquainted with Sir Philip Sidney, to whom he dedicated his Shepheardes Calender (1579). He probably married Machabyas Chylde in the same year, and also began to write The Faerie Queene. In 1580 he was appointed secretary to Lord Grey of Wilton, then going to Ireland as lord deputy. In 1588 or 1589 he became one of the 'undertakers' for the settlement of Munster, and acquired Kilcolman Castle in Co. Cork. Here he settled and occupied himself with literary work, writing his elegy 'Astrophel', on Sidney, and preparing 'The Faerie Queene'  for the press. The first three books of it were entrusted to the publisher during his visit to London in 1589. He returned reluctantly to Kilcolman, which he liked to regard as a place of exile, in 1591, recording his visit to London and return in Colin Clouts Come Home Againe (printed 1595). The success of The Faerie Queene led the publisher, Ponsonby, to issue his minor verse and juvenilia, in part rewritten, as Complaints, Containing Sundrie Small Poemes of the Worlds Vanitie (1591). This volume included 'The Ruines of Time', which was a further elegy on Sidney, dedicated to Sidney's sister, the countess of Pembroke, 'Mother Hubberds Tale', Muiopotmos, 'The Tears of the Muses', and 'Virgils Gnat'. Also in 1591 Daphnaïda was published, an elegy on Douglas Howard, the daughter of Lord Byndon and wife of sir A. Gorges. In 1594 he married Elizabeth Boyle, whom he had wooed in his Amoretti, and celebrated the marriage in his superb Epithalamion: the works were printed together in 1595. He published Books IV-VI of The Faerie Queene and his Fowre Hymnes in 1596, being in London for the purpose at the house of his friend the earl of Essex, where he wrote his Prothalamion and also his well-informed though propagandist View of the Present State of Ireland. He returned to Ireland, depressed both in mind and health, in 1596 or 1597. His castle of Kilcolman was burnt in October 1598, in a sudden insurrection of the natives, cchiefly O'Neills, under the earl fo Desmond; he was compelled to flee to Cork with his wife and three children. We do not know what works, if any, were lost at Kilcolman, but Pononby in 1591 had mentioned other works by Spenser which are not now extant, and in The Shepheardes Calender reference is made to his discourse of the 'English Poet'. He died in London in distress, if not actual destitution, at a lodging in King Street, Westminster. His funeral expenses were borne by the earl of Essex, and he was buried near his favourite Chaucer in Westminster Abbey. His monument, set up some 20 years later by Lady Anne Clifford, describes him as 'THE PRINCE OF POETS IN HIS TYME': there have been few later periods in which he has not been admired, and the poetry of both Milton and Keats had its origins in the reading of Spenser.

See the Variorum edition of his works, with a biography and full critical commentary, ed. E. Greenlaw, C. G. Osgood, F. M. Padelford, et al. (10 vols, 1932-57).


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Woman with Handbag

martes, 1 de octubre de 2013

Woman with Handbag

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 09:01. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Nos pasan a la Caixa

miércoles, 2 de octubre de 2013

Nos pasan a la Caixa

Nos comunica la gerencia lo siguiente:

La Gerencia comunica a todo el personal que, habiendo iniciado la Universidad de Zaragoza una línea de colaboración con la entidad financiera "Caixabank, S.A.", a partir del mes de septiembre la nómina será gestionada por dicha entidad, si bien el personal la recibirá en la misma cuenta en que hasta ahora lo hacía.


Espero que me sigan pagando, y hasta confío (¿?).

Pero diré que, en un año en el que el gobierno catalán ha anunciado su voluntad de secesionarse de España, me parece de lo más inoportuno que se contrate a un banco catalán para gestionar NADA. Como medida de mínima prudencia. Pero así se gestionan las cosas en España, haciendo como que no pasa nada, y que nada tiene consecuencias.

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 09:02. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Universidad




Mi guitarra, Anonymous

miércoles, 2 de octubre de 2013

Mi guitarra, Anonymous

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 09:04. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Shakespeares Sonette

jueves, 3 de octubre de 2013

Shakespeares Sonette

Aquí hay una ópera de Rufus Wainwright basada en los sonetos de Shakespeare (extremadamente moderna y estrafalaria, al estilo Brecht / Klaus Nomi, aviso):



De "Shakespear's Sonettes" nada: Shakespeares Sonette. Dir. Robert Wilson. Music Rufus Wainwright. Berliner Ensemble. YouTube (morganistik) 13 Aug. 2012.
 http://youtu.be/rYm8FRXQHjA

Lo dicho, para gustos especiales. Para gustos menos especiales, recomiendo saltar al minuto 1.05.00.

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 09:06. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Música


Un horizonte detalle

jueves, 3 de octubre de 2013

Un horizonte detalle

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Jueves, 16 de Enero de 2014 09:07. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Aristotle's POETICS

viernes, 4 de octubre de 2013

Aristotle's POETICS

An inaugural text for literary theory, narratology, poetics, criticism, theatre studies, and, more generally, for media studies, semiotics and the theory of representation.

S.H. Butcher's translation: http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.html

An audio file of Ingram Bywater's translation, with a preface:




Aristotle's Poetics (Wikipedia)

Aristotle's Poetics - An article by Joe Sachs (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-poe/

Some lecture notes (Hypercritica):
http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/hypercritica/01.Classical/Classical.1.3/Classical.1.3.1.html

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The Story of God

viernes, 4 de octubre de 2013

The Story of God

Una serie de la BBC sobre historia de la religión, de la idea de Dios y de la otra vida, desde una perspectiva antropológica y evolucionista. Presentada por Robert Winston.

CAPITULO 1

CAPITULO 2: NO GOD BUT GOD

CAPITULO 3: THE GOD OF THE GAPS


Quien quiera ver más, ya la buscará—o buscará la verdad sobre Dios y la vida eterna, siguiéndole la pista por otros sitios.






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Viernes, 17 de Enero de 2014 23:46. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Historia


Go Lovely Rose

martes, 8 de octubre de 2013

Go Lovely Rose

Go Lovely Rose by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Go Lovely Rose, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:28. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes






Niña diminuta en playa

martes, 8 de octubre de 2013

Niña diminuta en playa

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Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:34. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


Quevedo, Salmo XVII

miércoles, 9 de octubre de 2013

Quevedo, Salmo XVII

Miré los muros de la patria mía,
si un tiempo fuertes, ya desmoronados,
de la carrera de la edad cansados,
por quien caduca ya su valentía.

Salíme al campo, ví que el sol bebía
los arroyos del yelo desatados,
y del monte quejosos los ganados,
que con sombras hurtó su luz al día.

Entré en mi casa; vi que, amancillada,
de anciana habitación era despojos;
mi báculo, más corvo y menos fuerte;

vencida de la edad sentí mi espada.
Y no hallé cosa en que poner los ojos
que no fuese recuerdo de la muerte.



Un soneto sobre la apofenia. Veo la apofenia por todas partes. Y la mortalidad también, claro.

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Que la mayor parte de la muerte es vida

miércoles, 9 de octubre de 2013

Que la mayor parte de la muerte es la vida

Que la mayor parte de la muerte es la vida


Francisco de Quevedo, Poemas filosóficos, religiosos, morales... (I)

Enseña a morir antes y que la mayor parte de la muerte es la vida, y ésta no se siente, y la menor, que es el último suspiro, es la que da pena.

Señor don Juan, pues con la fiebre apenas
se calienta la sangre desmayada,
y por la mucha edad, desabrigada,
 tiembla, no pulsa, entre la arteria y venas;

pues que de nieve están las cumbres llenas,
la boca, de los años saqueada,
la vista, enferma, en noche sepultada,
y las potencias, de ejercicio ajenas,

salid a recibir la sepoltura,
acariciad la tumba y monumento:
que morir vivo es última cordura.

La mayor parte de la muerte siento
que se pasa en contentos y locura,
y a la menor se guarda el sentimiento.






espejo

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Fiesta poco alegre

miércoles, 9 de octubre de 2013

Fiesta poco alegre

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Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:38. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes




Keeping Track of Myself in CoolEssays

jueves, 10 de octubre de 2013

The bird and a line of white water





Keeping track of myself in CoolEssays

Van a parar a ese sitio de copieteo varias de mis bibliografías. Por ejemplo, mi bibliografía sobre retórica, procedente de...


A bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology

A Treatise of the Figures of Grammer and Rhetorike, profitable for al that be studious of Eloquence ... sette foorth by Richarde Sherrye ...
read more
download

 —y toda una colección adicional, bibliografías sobre


  • Ihab Hassan





  • Mito y mitología
  • El romanticismo
  • La modernidad
  • Teoría de los géneros literarios
  • R. P Blackmur
  • Análisis del discurso
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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:41. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Me enlazan


    Bibliografía sobre numerología

    Aquí reaparece en Scribd mi bibliografía sobre numerología, y la recapto. Que conste que en la numerología creo como en la religión o en la mitología—sólo en tanto que hay cabezas que creen en ella, y así se vuelve relevante como clave de interpretación.


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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:42. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Trabajos




    Tú y yo en la id

    viernes, 11 de octubre de 2013

    Tú y yo en la id...

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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:44. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes




    Yo, dominio público

    viernes, 11 de octubre de 2013

    Yo, dominio público

    Descubro en Scribd que figuro entre las fuentes de dominio público listadas por la Wikipedia para el área de LINGÜÍSTICA. Dos personas figuramos, de hecho—Edward Sapir y yo. Él es un clásico.  Aquí está la copia en Scribd de ese artículo sobre fuentes de dominio público.

    Hay como 20 páginas de documentos míos en Scribd, yo no sé si habré subido uno o dos, y seguro que hay cientos de ellos. En fin, que cualquier día me declaran parque nacional.

    Iré tomando nota de los que pueda, mientras no tenga nada más divertido que hacer.



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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:47. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Me enlazan




    Argumentos contra la CNEAI

    sábado, 12 de octubre de 2013

    Argumentos contra la CNEAI

    Aquí preparando argumentos para mi demanda judicial contra la CNEAI... por aquello de que no me dieron el último sexenio de reconocimiento a la investigación. Después de darme tres, y producir yo más y mejor que nunca. Hay que argumentar cosas para sustentar la calidad de las editoriales que me publican, de las revistas en que aparezco, o incluso de las personas que publican en los mismos volúmenes que han aparecido mis publicaciones...

    Empezando por argumentar la validez académica de mi capítulo de libro Literature in Internet.

    Sobre la editorial Cambridge Scholars Publishing pueden verse reseñas favorables publicadas en muchas revistas académicas de diversas disciplinas:
    Hay casi mil títulos publicados por esta editorial incluidos en los fondos de la Biblioteca Británica:
    Hay más de 200 en el catálogo SUDOC:
    Y en el catálogo REBIUN (Red de Bibliotecas Universitarias):
    Y más de 400 en la Biblioteca del Congreso de los USA:
    Así como en el catálogo de la Universidad de Harvard:
    Casi 1300 títulos de esta editorial aparecen en el catálogo COPAC:
    Y más de 1400 en la Biblioteca Nacional de Australia:


    Estos datos avalan la distribución adecuada de esta editorial en círculos académicos internacionales.


    En cuanto a otros participantes en el volumen—Mike Scott, Tim Shortis, Guadalupe Aguado, etc.:
    Página de Guadalupe Aguado de Cea en la Universidad Pólitécnica de Madrid:
    Página de Tim Shortis en la Universidad de Bristol, publicaciones, etc.:
    Página de Mike Scott en la Universidad de Aston:
    Premios y distinciones de Ming Cheung en su página de la Universidad de Adelaida:
    El coeditor del volumen, Santiago Posteguillo, también es ampliamente reconocido:

    Sobre el artículo "Literature in Internet":
    Una búsqueda en Google de los términos "Literature in Internet" da como tres primeros resultados mi capítulo. Dada la absoluta generalidad de los términos buscados, y los millones de páginas de la red, esto acredita suficientemente su reconocimiento internacional:
    La versión extensa de este artículo, publicada en el Social Science Resarch Network. El título es "Linkterature: From Word to Web: Literature in Internet, Internet in Literature, Internet as Literature. En mi página de autor puede comprobarse cómo ocupo el puesto 2812, por número de consultas, entre los más de 200.000 autores académicos de todas las especialidades de las humanidades y ciencias sociales incluidos en esta base de datos.
    Aquí puede consultarse el posicionamiento (objetivo) de autores:
    Ocupo asimismo el puesto 54 entre los 30.000 autores de estas disciplinas más productivos a nivel mundial:
    Adjunto una pantalla del contador (consultas.jpg) donde se puede ver el número de consultas y descargas del artículo "Linkterature / Literature in Internet".


    Sobre la publicación "Illuminations from This Thing of Darkness" publicada en la Evolutionary Review.


    Sobre Brian Boyd
    Presentación de su libro sobre poética evolucionista On the Origin of Stories publicado por la Universidad de Harvard
    Página de Brian Boyd en la Universidad de Auckland:
    Reseña de su libro On the Origin of Stories en American Scientist:
    Artículo "Darwinian Literary Studies" donde se habla de las principales figuras del campo, incluyendo a Carroll y a Boyd. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*


    Sobre David Sloan Wilson
    -Página de David Sloan Wilson en la Wikipedia:
    -Página de David Sloan Wilson en la Universidad Estatal de Nueva York en Binghampton, detallando cargos, premios, etc.
    "Darwinian Literary Studies." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*
    Página web del congreso Consilience Conference, por David Sloan Wilson, detallando su participación y la de otros importantes críticos evolucionistas de talla internacional, incluyendo a Joseph Carroll y a E. O. Wilson.
    Esta reseña de Steven Pinker, conocidísima autoridad científica mundial en el campo del cognitivismo, sobre el libro de Wilson The Literary Animal acredita la talla mundial y carácter novedoso de la investigación de Wilson, Carroll, y otros investigadores evolucionistas que también contribuyen a The Evolutionary Review:


    Sobre Francisco J. Ayala
    "Francisco José Ayala." Wikipedia: La enciclopedia libre
    Ayala ha recibido numerosos premios y condecoraciones, entre los que destacan:
    • 2010 - Premio Templeton, (Templeton Prize)17 18
    • 2010 - Premio Trotter en Información, Complejidad e Inferencia, Texas A&M University, USA
    • 2010 - Premio Capio Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid
    • 2009 - Premio COSCE por Divulgación Científica, Confederación de Sociedades Científicas de España
    • 2007 - Premio Internacional de Ciencia e Investigación, Fundación Cristóbal Gabarrón, España
    • 2007 - Medalla Presidencial, Universidad Mount St. Mary’s, Maryland, USA
    • 2007 - Premio a la Distinción Científica, Instituto Americano de Ciencias Biológicas
    • 2003 - Medalla de oro, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (Italia)
    • 2002 - Premio Mario Bohoslavsky de la ARP-SAPC19
    • 2001 - U.S. National Medal of Science (Estados Unidos)
    • 2000 - Medalla de oro de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Italia (Italia)
    • 2000 - William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement de Sigma Xi
    • 1998 - Premio al Científico Distinguido de SACNAS
    • 1995 - Premio del Presidente del American Institute of Biological Sciences
    • 1995 - Medalla de la Universidad de California en Irvine
    • 1995 - Premio Distinción Rioja
    • 1994 - Medalla de Oro Honoraria Gregor Mendel, Academia Sueca de las Ciencias
    • 1993 - Medalla Elisabeth Goldschmidt, Universidad Hebrea, Jerusalén
    • 1987 - Premio Libertad y Responsabilidad Científica, AAAS (Estados unidos)
    • 1985 - Premio Wilhelmine Key, Sociedad Americana de Genética
    • 1981 - Premio de Honor, Federación de Sociedades de Genética de Yugoslavia
    • 1979 - Medalla de la Universidad de Francia
    Doctorado Honoris Causa
    Sobre Joseph Carroll (coeditor de la revista)
    Profesor en la Universidad de San Luis (USA): http://www.umsl.edu/~carrolljc/
    Curriculum vitae de Joseph Carroll:
    "Joseph Carroll (Scholar)." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*
                2013
    Max, D. T. "The Literary Darwinists." New York Times Magazine 6 Nov. 2005: 77.
    Citas a obras de Joseph Carroll en Google Académico:
    "Darwinian Literary Studies." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*


    Sobre Alice Andrews ( coeditora): Profesora universitaria norteamericana, especialista en psicología evolucionista.
    Página de la autora en la State University of New York, en New Paltz


    Sobre la editorial Peter Lang
    Su página web acredita su distribución internacional:
    Detalles:
    A título de ejemplo, en la Biblioteca del Congreso de EE.UU. figuran más de 10.000 volúmenes editados por Peter Lang:
    Lo mismo en la Biblioteca Británica (British Library), más de 10.000 volúmenes de esta editorial:
    En el catálogo COPAC aparecen más de 20.000 títulos de Peter Lang:
    En el catálogo SUDOC figuran más de 4.000 volúmenes publicados por Peter Lang:
    Y en el catálogo de la biblioteca de la Universidad de Harvard hay más de 8.000 títulos publicados por Peter Lang:


    Sobre la primera contribución complementaria, "Múltiples lectores implícitos"
    La fecha de publicación consta en DIALNET (2009-2010)
    Asimismo en la página "Multiple implied readers / Múltiples lectores implícitos." Del Social Science Research Network. Fecha: 4 junio 2009.
                http://ssrn.com/abstract=1414174



    Todo esto para sumarlo a argumentación adicional contra la resolución de la CNEAI:

    Se refiere esta argumentación sólo a LOS CUATRO ULTIMOS PARRAFOS antes de la resolución (p. 7). El resto entiendo que es paja legislativa o o no es atacable.
    Párrafo uno: En mi recurso inicial no alegué malicia ni prevaricación. Ahora en cambio sí cabe alegar malicia, arbitrariedad, error manifiesto o actuación incompetente, en cuanto que se ignoran hechos alegados, de gran relevancia, o en cuanto que se introducen criterios arbitrarios no usados en otros casos. Ver párrafo tres.  Pero siempre se duda si procede alegar estas cosas, o no proceden en este tipo de recurso.

    Párrafo dos:

    Con respecto a la publicacion nº  3 valorada con 7, no se trata de justificar que merece un 7 al aparecer "publicada en una prestigiosa editorial académica", sino por qué, siendo que cumple todos los requisitos, indicios de calidad, reseñas internacionales favorables, etc., no se le concede la puntuación máxima, DADO QUE NO SE ADUCE NINGUN CRITERIO DESFAVORABLE QUE JUSTIFIQUE LIMITAR ESA VALORACION. Puede entenderse, en la ausencia de justificación ante los datos aducidos en el recurso, que se trata de un mero EJERCICIO DE ARBITRARIEDAD, pues no se argumenta ni razona dicha limitación a la hora de puntuarla, sino que se aduce de nuevo un argumento valorativo positivo, a saber "que ha aparecido publicada en una prestigiosa editorial académica". Falta el "pero" que justifique de algún modo dar una puntuación baja o no máxima.

    Párrafo tres:
    Criterios injustificables o que crean tratamiento diferenciado de modo arbitrario.

    Uno: El criterio de que se reduce el impacto del artículo por el uso de la lengua española. NO ES CRITERIO utilizado en cada área de conocimiento (Filología griega - no se exige que estén en griego; Filología árabe - no se exige que estén en árabe - etc.) y no hay justificación para que se use en Filología Inglesa, pues se crea un tratamiento arbitrario. Véanse por ejemplo las publicaciones sobre Filología Árabe de la presidenta de la comisión—en español, no en árabe ni en inglés:
    http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/autor?codigo=110267

    El español es lengua de conocimiento internacional y por supuesto EN ESPAÑA, a diferencia de lo que aduce la sentencia diciendo que "la lengua española empleada en esta aportación y en el volumen en el que se edita disminuye el impacto internacional Y NACIONAL" del artículo. Es no sólo inadmisible, sino incluso INCONSTITUCIONAL. Hay que citar el artículo de la Constitución donde se cita el derecho a utilizar el español, así como datos del Instituto Cervantes sobre el uso del español como lengua internacional.
    Dependemos del criterio (siempre aleatorio) de los jueces. Pero valdría la pena insistir en este punto en:
    - la patente FALSEDAD de lo que dice la comisión, siendo que el español es una lengua internacional equiparable al inglés—el segundo idioma más hablado del mundo según el Instituto Cervantes:
    http://www.lavanguardia.com/cultura/20100619/53949214032/el-espanol-ya-es-el-segundo-idioma-mas-hablado-del-mundo.html

    - la ANTICONSTITUCIONALIDAD de penalizar el uso del español en un proceso de valoración oficial que no tiene que ver con que se me esté a mí examinando de inglés. De inglés ya estoy examinado. Aquí hay datos sobre las publicaciones de la presidenta de la comisión, que están en español, o en catalán. También podría ser interesante incluirlos. Pero lo de la anticonstitucionalidad creo que es un argumento que podrían valorar muy positivamente algunos jueces (a saber cuáles, claro).
    Dos: La respuesta al recurso silencia el hecho relevante de que EL ARTICULO EXISTE TAMBIEN EN INGLES como se adujo en los indicios de calidad. El mero hecho de que se silencie esta cuestión CRUCIAL es indicativo de un mal hacer deliberado o completamente incompetente por parte de la Comisión.

    Ver:
    Jose Angel Garcia Landa,
    "Blogs and the Narrativity of Experience." Online PDF at Social Science Research Network 1 abril 2008: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1113321

    Recogido asimismo en el Literary Theory & Criticism eJournal (1 abril 2008):
    http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/JELJOUR_Results.cfm?npage=2&form_name=journalBrowse&journal_id=949618
    ¿Cómo puede aducirse con buena fe que el artículo no tiene suficiente difusión internacional o nacional por no estar en inglés, SI ESTÁ TAMBIÉN EN INGLÉS, se aporta este hecho como indicio de calidad, y ese hecho se ignora por completo? Es indicio claro de un mal hacer por parte del comité evaluador y de la CNEAI, que no examina las alegaciones del recurso o las escamotea.
    Tres: En el recurso se aducen NUMEROSOS INDICIOS NUEVOS de calidad, por ejemplo las reseñas de la sección (D) de los indicios de calidad de la Contribución 4. Por contra, la CNEAI afirma que "no se aducen indicios nuevos de calidad ni de impacto internacional". La mera afirmación de que las cosas no existen NO LAS ELIMINA DE LA EXISTENCIA, y por tanto ha de considerarse arbitraria esta respuesta de la Comisión y el Comité, y, una vez más, DEMOSTRATIVA EN SÍ MISMA DE LIGEREZA Y ARBITRARIEDAD en su actuación.
    Cuatro: La exigencia de que todo lo de Filología Inglesa se publique en inglés (si es que a eso se refiere el tratamiento diferencial de la comisión) MAL PUEDE SOSTENERSE cuando la propia comisión no incluye ningún especialista en Filología Inglesa y se ha insistido muy específicamente en que "todos juzgan de todo", es de suponer que con criterios comunes a todas las áreas de humanidades. Sin cuestionar que puedan ejercer la evalución especialistas de otras áreas, no puede comprenderse cómo introducen un criterio de área tan particular que ellos no aplican en otras áreas (es de suponer que si nos atenemos al criterio que parece usarse, todo tipo de conocimiento está en principio más difundido en inglés que en español, pero la comisión tampoco parece haber aplicado este razonamiento de modo coherente).
    Párrafo 4:
    Se aduce que el artículo "Múltiples lectores implícitos" no corresponde a este sexenio por tener el volumen una fecha de impresor de "Logroño, 2012". Aquí la CNEAI actúa contra todo criterio, pues en ningún caso se referencian las publicaciones por la FECHA DE IMPRESION, máxime cuando las revistas no se difunden sólo por la imprenta, sino que tienen una edición electrónica, como es el caso de este artículo aparecido en el volumen 2009-2010 de Cuadernos de Investigación Filológica:
    http://www.unirioja.es/servicios/sp/ej/cif/cif.shtml
    Se apreciará claramente la injusticia de esta valoracion cuando se observe que las valoraciones de la CNEAI se refieren siempre a la fecha de EDICION de una publicación. Máxime cuando esta se encuentra disponible en el repositorio SSRN desde 2009:
    http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1414174

    El acto de acudir a justificar una valoracion negativa por una fecha de impresor, ignorando la existencia de las ediciones electrónicas de años anteriores, ES EN SÍ MISMO PRUEBA DE UN TRATAMIENTO DIFERENCIAL MALINTENCIONADO E INJUSTO.  — ¿Se pregunta uno si procede aducir este tipo de cosas como indicios en este tipo de demanda?

    Por otra parte, se verá el absurdo y el DOBLE RASERO utilizado por la CNEAI, al hacerse uno la pregunta, ¿hubiera aceptado la CNEAI en algún caso esta publicación de Cuadernos de Investigación Filológica de 2009-2010, existente en edición electrónica desde 2009, COMO ADMISIBLE PARA EL SEXENIO 2012-17? Fácilmente se aprecia que de ninguna manera, con lo cual la argumentación de la CNEAI resulta falaz y tergiversadora, además de revelar un tratamiento deliberadamente desigual al recurrente.

    Con esta actuación, la CNEAI ha manifestado un tratamiento que podría incluso tacharse de prevaricador, por las inexcusables omisiones de evidencia y por el tratamiento diferencial dado a sabiendas al recurrente con el fin de justificar una evaluación negativa.

    Solicitamos del juez que a la vista de estos hechos, anule la decisión de la CNEAI, y dé la razón al recurrente DICTAMINANDO LA CONCESIÓN DEL SEXENIO DE INVESTIGACIÓN QUE SE SOLICITA. Si es jurídicamente posible—o lo que proceda, vamos.
    —oOo—

     

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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:50. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Trabajos


    Silver Seagulls 3

    sábado, 5 de octubre de 2013

    Silver Seagulls 3

    Silver Seagulls 3 by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
    Silver Seagulls 3, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

    Etiquetas: ,

    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:10. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Early Morning Rain (2)

    sábado, 5 de octubre de 2013

    Early morning rain (2)


    Early morning rain (2) from Jose Angel García Landa on Vimeo.

    Estoy a punto de llegar a los 300 vídeos en Vimeo. A ver si lo celebro, y lo dejo ahí.

    Etiquetas: ,

    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:11. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Músicas mías


    The Incredible Human Journey

    domingo, 6 de octubre de 2013

    The Incredible Human Journey (BBC)

    A series on the spread of Homo sapiens out of Africa, presented by Alice Roberts.  Tracing back the tracks of Homo... back to the river Omo, in Ethiopia.

    Part 1: Out of Africa

    Part 2: Asia.

    Part 3: Europe.

    Part 4: Australia.

    Part 5: The Americas.

     

     

     

     

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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:14. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Historia


    Perspective of the Pink House

    domingo, 6 de octubre de 2013

    A Perspective of the Pink House 2

    Etiquetas: , ,

    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:15. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Andrew Marvell

    unes, 7 de octubre de 2013

    Andrew Marvell



    Andrew Marvell From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:


    MARVELL, Andrew (1621-1678), son of the Revd Andrew Marvell, born at Winstead in Holderness, Yorkshire. in 1624 the family moved to Hull on his father's appointment as lecturer at Holy Trinity Church. Marvell attended Hull Grammar School. He matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar in De. 1633, and graduated in 1639. In 1637 he had contributed Greek and Latin verses to a Cambridge volume congratulating Charles I on the birth of a daughter. His mother died in Apr. 1638, his father remarrying in November. Around 1639 Marvell may have come under the influence of Roman Catholic proselytizers: according to one story he went to London with them and was fetched back by his father. In January 1641 his father was drowned while crossing the Humber, and soon after Marvell left Cambridge for London. Between 1643 and 1647 he travelled for four years in Holland, France, Italy, and Spain, learning languages and fencing, and perhaps deliberately avoiding the Civil War (he said later that 'the Cause was too good to have been fought for'). On his return from the Continent he apparently moved in London literary circles and had friends among Royalists. His poems to Lovelace ('his Noble Friend') and on the death of Lord Hastings were published in 1649. In the early summer of 1650 he wrote 'An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Iraland', perhaps the greatest political poem in English.

    From 1650 to 1652 Marvell tutored young Mary Fairfax, daughter of the Parliamentarian general, at Nun Appleton in Yorkshire. In this period, it is usually assumed, he wrote 'Upon Appleton House' and lyrics such as 'The Garden' and the Mower Poems. In 1653 he was appointed tutor to Cromwell's ward William Dutton, and moved to John Oxenbridge's house at Eton, where he probably wrote 'Bermudas'. In 1654 with 'The First Anniversary' (published 1655) he began his career as unofficial laureate to Cromwell, and was appointed in 1657 Latin secretary to the council of state (a post previouly occupied by his friend and sponsor John Milton, now blind). For eight months during 1656 Marvell was in Saumur with Dutton, where he was described as 'a notable English Italo-Machiavellian'. He mourned Cromwell in 'Upon the Death of His Late Highness the Lord Protector' (1658) and took part in the funeral procession. The following year (January) he was elected MP for Hull, and remained one of the Hull members until his death. At the Restoration his influence secured Milton's release from prison.

    From June 1662 to April 1663 Marvell was in Holland on unknown political business, and in July 1663 he travelled with the earl of Carlisle as private secretary on his embassy to Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, returning in January 1665. His satires against Clarendon were written and published in 1667. Later that year he composed his finest satire 'Last Instructions to a Painter', attacking financial and sexual corruption at court and in Parliament, and took part in the impeachment of Clarendon. The Rehearsal Transpros'd, a controversial mock-biblical prose work advocating toleration for Dissenters, shich set new standards of irony and urbanity, appeared in 1672 (Pt II, 1673). Gilbert Burnet called these 'the wittiest books that have appeared in this age', and Charles II apparently read them 'over and over again'. According to the report of government spies, Marvell (under the codename 'Mr Thomas')  was during 1674 a member of a fifth column promoting Dutch interests in England, and in touch with Dutch secret agents. The second edition of Paradise Lost contained a commendatory poem by Marvell, and in his prose works he continued to wage war against arbitrary royal power. Mr Smirk, or The Divine in Mode and A Short Historical Essay Concerning General Councils (1676), and An Account of the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary Government in England (1677), were all Marvell's though prudently published anonymously. The London Gazette offered a reward, in Mar. 1678, for information about the author or printer of An Account. That August, however, Marvell died in his house in Great Russell Street from medical treatment prescribed for a tertian ague. His Miscellaneous Poems appeared in 1681. His Miscellaneous Poems appeared in 1681, printed from papers found in his rooms by his housekeeper Mary Palmer, who gave herself out to be his widow and signed the preface 'Mary Marvell' in order to get her hands on £500 which Marvell had been keeping for two bankrupt friends. This volume did not contain the satires (the authorship of some of which is still disputed): these appered in Poems on Affairs of State (1689-97).

    Famed in his day as patriot, satirist, and foe to tyranny, Marvell was virtually unknown as a lyric poet. C. Lamb started a gradual revival, but Marvell's poems were more appreciated in 19th-cent. America than in England. It was not until after the First World War, with Grierson's Metaphysical Lyrics and T. S. Eliot's 'Andrew Marvell', that the modern high estimation of his poetry began to prevail. In the second half of the 20th cent. his small body of lyrics was subjected to more exegetical effort than the work of any other metaphysical poet. His oblique and finally enigmatic way of treating what are often quite conventional materials (as in 'The Nymph Complaining for the Death of Her Faun' or 'To His Coy Mistress') has especially intrigued the modern mind.

    Poems and Letters, ed. H. M. Margoliouth, 3rd edn rev. P. Legouis and E. E. Duncan-Jones (2 vols, 1971); Latin Poems, ed. and trans. W. A. McQueen and K. A. Rockwell (1964), The Rehearsal Transpros'd, ed. D. E. B. Smith (1971); P. Legouis, Andrew Marvell: Poet, Puritan, Patriot (2nd edn, 1968); H. Kelliher, Andrew Marvell: Poet and Politician (1978); J. B. Leishman, The Art of Marvell's Poetry (1966).



    —oOo—





    From A History of English Literature, by Émile Legouis and Louis Cazamian (1926-1937) 
     

     
    The End of the Renascence, 1625-1660 — 6. Puritan poetry. Marvell.

    The Puritans also had their songsters, who, while they were less numerous than those of the other party, included one of the most endearing and another, much the greatest of the poets of the century—Marvell and Milton.

    It is impossible not to place among the Puritans Andrew Marvell (1621-78) (1), who, under the Commonwealth was tutor to the daughter of Lord Fairfax, the great Parliamentary general, and who subsequently was Milton's friend and with him secretary to the Privy Council. He was the most inspired and affectionate of Cromwell's panegyrists, and after the Restoration he carried on in verse and prose the struggle for religious and political liberty. Yet it must be recognized that no one could be less like than Marvell to the conventional harsh and gloomy Puritan, the enemy of all worldly and artistic amusement, for ever mouthing verses of the Old Testament in order to denounce the sins of the world.

    This figure is dispelled as we look at Hanneman's portrait of Marvell, a man thirty-seven years old, with brilliant, living eyes, a laughing, mocking mouth and a calm brow, or as we read the verses which the poet wrote in his thirtieth year, alight, as they are, with human love and feeling for nature. Even in the poems of his maturity and in his pamphleteer's prose the gaiety is apparent of a jovial and mirth-loving  spirit. On the whole, religion has far less place in Marvell's verses than in those of the Anglicans we have just considered. While he wrote many verses which witness to the sincerity of his faith, he made both more numerous and finer poems filled with the joyous humanism and the cordial, vital quality which prove him a son of the Renascence. Undoubtedly he revered the Bible,; but he also loved wine, women, and song.

    He wrote his essentially poetic works at Nunappleton, Lord Fairfax's country-seat, where he lived from 1650 to 1652. He is inspired by the country, but not, like earlier poets, by the country seen in accordance with the pastoral convention. The desire for a more precise, for a local poetry, was already making itself felt, and one of the first poems which fulfilled it was John Denham's Cooper's Hill. But while a landscape was to Denham no more than the starting-point for historical and moral reflections, marvell indulged far more fully in the happy contemplation of natural scenery. Before him only Wither had expressed, amid much rubbish, the intimate enjoyment he drew from fields and woods. Marvell spontaneously returned to this theme which was to be so dear to the Lake poets. He is very Wordsworthian in Upon the Hill and Grove at Billborough, in which he descirbes a sort of natural terrace whither Fairfax, after his retirement, was wont to resort in search o quiet and of a meditative mood.

    Marvell relates his own feelings in the longest of his poems, Upon Appleton House, in which he shows that he is familiar with the aspects of the country and its trees and birds, and that he had studied and compared the songs of birds. He anticipates Wordsworth in preferring the song of the dove to that of the nightingale. As he walks, he can


    ... through the hazels thick espy
    The hatching throstle's shining eye,

    and watch the woodpecker at work. He almost identifies himself with the birds and growing things:


    Thus I, easy philosopher,
    Among the birds and trees confer;
    And little now to make me wants
    Or of the fowls, or of the plants.

    He has dialogues with the singing birds. The leaves trembling in the wind are to him Sibyl's leaves:


    What Rome, Greece, Palestine, ere said,
    I in this light mosaic read.
    Thrice happy he who, not mistook,
    Hath read in Nature's mystic book.

    To be covered with leaves is a delight to him:


    Under this antic cope I move,
    Like some great prelate of the grove.

    He calls upon the leafy shooots to cling to him:


    Bind me, ye woodbines, in your twines,
    Curl me about, ye gadding vines.

    This is the exalted love for nature of a romantic, but a hind of strangeness and of Elizabethan pedantry are mingles with it.

    Marvell's feeling for animals, his suffering when they suffer, is voiced with infinite gracefulness in his semi-mythological poem, The Nymph complaining for the Death of hier Fawn.

    He was the first to sing the beauty and glory of gardens and orchards. In them he tastes his dearest delights: it seems to him that all creation is


    Annihilating all that's made
    To a green thought in a green shade.

    Marvell's Garden foreshadows Keats by its sensuousness, and Wordsworth by its optimistic and serenely meditative mood.

    Yet he preferred wild to cultivated nature. It is in the spirit of charming Perdita in The Winter's Tale that, in The Mower against Gardens, he protests against artificial gardening processes—grafting, budding, and selection.

    The feeling for nature which, in the poems we have mentioned, is expressed in its pure state, is readily introduced into poems which are otherwise inspired, by Christianity or by love, nowhere better than in the famous song of the emigrants in Bermuda. Here Marvell imagines that he hears a Puritan refugee from the Stuart tyranny singing praises to God as he rows along the coast of an island in the Bermudas, 'safe from the storms' and prelates' rage':


    He hangs in shades the orange bright
    Like golden lamps in a green night,
    And does in the pomegranates close
    Jewels more rich than Ormus shows.

    Sometimes Marvell returns to the pastoral, but he gives it a new emphasis of truth, even of realism. The short idyll Ametas and Thestylis making Hay-ropes is very original and gracerul, and there is also the touching complaint of Damon the Mower, who, working beneath a burning sun, laments his Juliana's hardness of heart.

    Luces en hojasLove poems are not numerous in Marvell's work, but among several which are graceful (The Gallery) or slightly ironical—denouncing women's tricks, artifices, and coquetry (Mourning, Daphnis and Chloe)—a few hold us by their passion. His lines To his Coy Mistress have Donne's strength and passion without his obscurity or bad taste, and run easily and harmoniously. They are the masterpiece of metaphysical poetry in this genre, and they also show a return to the anacreontic theme, 'Gather ye rosebuds while ye may.' But it is repeated with a new intensity. It issues from a heart truly deep and passionate, and the love which is demanded is silent and forceful:


    Now let us sport us while we may,
    And now, like am'rous birds of prey,
    Rather at once our time devour,
    Than languish in his slow-chapt pow'r.
    Let us roll all our strength and all
    Our sweetness up into one ball,
    And tear our pleasures with rough strife
    Thorough the iron gates of life.
    Thus, though we cannot make our sun
    Stand still, yet we will make him run.

    These lines are the very essence of the poetry of Marvell, that strange, sensuous, passionate Puritan. He had, however, another vein. He was an ardent patriot and patriotism rather than piety may be said to have dictated his verses on Cromwell's protectorate and death. It is the dominant note of his Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland [1650], First Anniversary of the Government under His Highness the Lord Protector (1655), and Poem upon the Death of His late Highness the Loerd Protector. A sort of competition of poets, in which such as Waller and Dryden took part, was provoked by the great man's death, and Marvell carried off its prize because in his verses the man speaks through the poet. They are penetrated with emotion. Better than the others, Marvell gives the impression of the greatness of him he sang and the immensity of the loss his death occasioned.

    After the Restoration Marvell pursued only the art of satire, in prose and verse, and this phrase of his accomplishment is better studied elsewhere. We have said enought to show how far he was original as a pure poet. Nature endowed him richly: his sincerity and straightness of vision sufficed to raise the metaphysical school, to which he belonged, from its state of decline, and to bring it back from extravagance to reason without alienating fancy. In the history of the feeling for nature his place is considerable. He expressed himself with liveliness and happy audacity. But he paid too little regard to versification. His lyrical work is written almost entirely in rhymed eight-syllabled couplets, a pleasant metre, but one so easy that it tempts to carelessness. In the formation of his stanzas, Marvell shows himself one fo the least varied and inventive poets of his time. To rank among the greatest, he should have had a more exacting standard of art, and perhaps a more whole-hearted devotion to poetry, as well as those supreme qualities of mastery of the word and the line which are the glory of the other Puritan poet, John Milton.

    Satire and the Satiric Spirit — 3. Political Satire: Marvell, Oldham.

    Under the Restoration the domain of political satire is vast and crowded, and only the scholar can explore all its corners. Great names, brilliant or powerful works stand out above a multitude of pamphlets and invectives, which in the most varied forms express one and the same fund of virulent enmity; where intense words fail to give any artistic relief to the monotony of these outporings of hatred.

    It is the art of the satirist which alone counts here. The contemporaries, struck by the wealth of this production, have gathered from it the collections entitled Poems on Affairs of State, in which satires are intermixed with pieces of different characters, and of unequal interest. Among their very diverse themes, there are heard the outburst of a vigorous impassioned inspiration, that of a seething anger against the absolutist and Catholic tendencies of the Stuarts. All the genius of a Dryden, thrown on the side of the monarchy, cannot prevent the confused instinct of an irritated people from voicing itself in even louder tones; and another writer—Andrew Marvell—from lending a poetical expression to this instinct.

    Marvell belongs to the preceding age of English literature. (1 bis [see above]). A belated survivor like Milton, he preserves in the midst of the children of Belial the forceful energy of a character that has been tempered by Puritanism. His satyires, by virtue of the definite occasion which called them into existence, are part and parcel of the Restoration and must be connected with it.

    This occasion brings together three poets of the transition in which the new literature develops from the old. Waller (2), a courtier poet at heart, had celebrated an English naval victory, and attributed its triumph to the reigning dynasty
    (Instructions to a Painter, 1665); Sir John Denham (3) had inveighed against this adulation in lines of greater manliness (Directions to a Painter, 1667, 1671, 1674). Sparing at first the king's person—for he knows how to bend the stiffness of his principles, and is not above tactics of caution—then abandoning all reserve, he [Marvell] launches until his death (1678) a series of attacks against the foreign policy of the king, and the scandals of public life of the court. Unable to disclose his identity, he has to circulate these pamphlets anonymously, either in manuscript form or in loose sheets, and to hide his main purpose under the veil of allegories. But the personality of the author reveals itself in most cases, and the pulsating ardour of his feeling shines out through all disguises ([The Last Instructions to a Painter], Britannia and Raleigh, Dialogue between Two Horses, etc.). In a language of extraordinary raciness, and a popular tone, with a raw realistic touch, the rage and shame of an England that has been humiliated, enslaved, and contaminated by foreign vices and fashions are here expressed. Such feelings were still exceptional, but their contagious influence was spreading obscurely. As if the new spirit in poetry supplied him with his instrument of expression, Marvell writes most often in heroic copulets; but his unpolished verse, capable of surprising vigour, has not the necessary suppleness or regularity and rather reminds one at times of the simple ballad rhtythms. The irresistible virtue of a lofty soul, of a heart embittered but obsessed by noble regrets and high thoughts, nevertheless imbues these strange poems with an energy of movement and phrase, with an eloquence, that make them one of the most eminent examples of English political satire.







    (1). Complete Works in Prose and Verse, ed. Grosart, 4 vols. (1872-5); Poems and Satires, ed. Aitken in 2 vols. (1892) and in 1 vol. for the Muses' Library (1898). See A. Birrell, Andrew Marvell (English Men of Letters Series, 1905).

    (1 bis). (...) Poems and Letters, ed. by H. M. Margoliouth, 1927; P. Legouis, André Marvell, etc., 1928. There would seem to be serious doubt as to the authenticity of several among the satires attributed to Marvell.

    (2). Edmund Waller (1606-87): Poems, ed. by Drury, 1893. See Part I.

    (3). Sir John Denham (1615-69): Poems, Chalmers, vol. vii. See Part I.


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    William Shakespeare

    lunes, 7 de octubre de 2013

    William Shakespeare

    From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.
    will power
    SHAKESPEARE, William (1564-1616), dramatist, man of the theatre, and poet, baptized in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, on 26 Apr. 1564. His birth is traditionally celebrated on 23 Apr., which is also known to have been the date of his death. He was the eldest son of John Shakespeare, a glover and dealer in other commodities who played a prominent part in local affairs, becoming bailiff and justice of the peace in 1568, but whose fortunes later declined. John had married c. 1557 Mary Arden, who came from a family of higher social standing. Of their eight children, four sons and one daughter survived childhood.

    The standard and kind of education indicated by William's writings are such as he might have received at the local grammar school, whose records for the period are lost. On 28 Nov. 1582 a bond was issued permitting him to marry Anne Hathaway of Shottery, a village close to Stratford. She was eight years his senior. A daughter, Susanna, was baptized on 26 May 1583, and twins, Hamnet and Judith, on 2 Feb. 1585. We do not know how Shakespeare was employed in early manhood; the best authenticated tradition is *Aubrey's: 'he had been in his younger yeares a Schoolmaster in the Country.' This has fed speculation that he is the 'William Shakeshafte' named in the will of the recusant Alexander Houghton, of Lea Hall, Lancashire, in 1581, and in turn that he had Catholic sympathies.

    Nothing is known of his beginnings as a writer, nor when or in what capacity he entered the theatre. In 1587 an actor of the Queen's Men died through manslaughter shortly before the company visited Stratford. That Shakespeare may have filled the vacancy is an intriguing speculation. The first printed allusion to him is from 1592, in the pamphlet *Greenes Groats-Worth of Witte, ostensibly by R. *Greene but possibly by *Chettle. Mention of 'an upstart Crow' who 'supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you' and who 'is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a country' suggests rivalry, and parody of a line from 3 *Henry VI shows that Shakespeare was established on the London literary scene. He was a leading member of  the Lord Chamberlain's Men soon after their refoundation in 1594. With them he worked and grew prosperous for the rest of his career as they developed into London's leading company, occupying the *Globe Theatre from 1599, becoming the King's Men on James I's accession in 1603, and taking over the Blackfriars as a winter house in 1608. He is hte only prominent playwright of his time to have had so stable a relationship with a single company.

    Theatrical life centred on London, which necessarily became Shakespeare's professional base, as various records testify. But his family remained in Stratford. In 1596 his father applied, successfully, for a grant of arms, and so became a gentleman; in August William's son Hamnet died, and was buried in Holy Trinity churchyard. In October Shakespeare was lodging in Bishopsgate, London, and in May of the next year he bought a substantial Stratford house, New Place. His father died in 1601, and in the following year William paid £320 for 127 acres of land in Old Stratford. In 1604 he lodged in London with a Huguenot family called Mountjoy. In the next year he paid £440 for an interest in the Stratford tithes, and there in June 1607 his daughter Susanna married a physician, John Hall. His only granddaughter, Elizabeth Hall, was christened the following February; in 1608 his mother died and was buried in Holy Trinity.

    Evidence of Shakespeare's increasing involvement with Stratford at this time suggests that he was withdrawing to New Place, but his name continues to appear in London records; in Mar. 1613, for instance, he paid £140 for a gatehouse close to the Blackfriars Theatre, probably as an investment. In the same month he and the actor R. *Burbage received 44 shillings each for providing an impresa to be borne by the Earl of Rutland at a court tourney. In Feb. 1616 his second daughter Judith married Thomas Quiney, causing her father to make alterations to the draft of his will, which he signed on 25 Mar. He died, according to the inscription on his monument, on 23 Apr., and was buried in Holy Trinity. His widow died in 1623 and his last surviving descendant, Elizabeth Hall, in 1670.

    Shakespeare's only writings for the press (aprt from the disputed 'Funeral Elegy' of 1613) are the narrative poems *Venus and Adonis and *The Rape of Lucrece, published 1593 and 1594 respectively, each with the author's dedication to Henry Wriothesley, earl of Southampton, and the short poem *'The Phoenix and the Turtle', published 1601 in Robert Chester's Loves Martyr, a collection of poems by various hands. His *Sonnets, dating probably from the mid-1590s, appeared in 1609, apparently not by his agency; they bear a dedication to the mysterious 'Mr W.H.' over the initials of the publisher, Thomas Thorpe. The volume also includes the poem 'A Lover's Complaint'.

    Shakespeare's plays were published by being performed. Scripts of only half of them appeared in print in his lifetime, some in short, sometimes manifestly corrupt, texts, often known as 'bad quartos'. Records of performance are scanty and haphazard: as a result dates and order of composition, especially of the earlier plays, are often difficult to establish. The list that follows gives dates of first printing of all the plays other than those that first appeared in the 1623 Folio.

    Probably Shakespeare began to write for the stage in the late 1580s. The ambitious trilogy on the reign of Henry VI, now known as *Henry VI Parts 1, 2, and 3, and its sequel *Richard III, are among his early works. Parts 2 and 3 were printed in variant texts as The First Part of the Contention betwixt the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster (1594) and The True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York (1595). Henry VI Part I may have been written after these. A variant quarto of Richard III appeared in 1597. Shakespeare's first Roman tragedy is *Titus Andronicus, printed 1594, and his earliest comedies are *The Two Gentlemen of Verona, *The Taming of the Shrew (a derivative play, The Taming of a Shrew, was printed 1594), *The Comedy of Errors (acted 1594), and *Love's Labour's Lost (printed 1598). All these plays are thought to have been written by 1595.

    Particularly difficult to date is *King John: scholars still dispute whether a two-part play, The Reign of John, King of England, printed 1591, is its source or (as seems more probable) a derivative. *Richard II, printed 1597, is usually dated 1595. For some years after this, Shakespeare concentrated on comedy, in *A Midsummer Night's Dream and* The Merchant of Venice (both printed 1600), *The Merry Wives of Windsor (related to the later history plays, and printed in a variant text 1602), Much Ado about Nothing (printed 1600), *As You Like it (mentioned in 1600), and Twelfth Night, probably wirtten in 1600 or soon afterwards. *Romeo and juliet (ascribed to the mid-1590s)is a tragedy with strongly comic elements, and the tetralogy begun by Richard II is completed by three comical histories: *Henry IV Parts I and 2, each printed a year or two after composition (Part 1 1598, Part 2 1600), and *Henry V, almost certainly written 1599, printed, in a shortened, possibly corrupt, text, 1600.

    In 1598 *Meres, a minor writer, published praise of Shakespeare in Palladis Tamia: Wit's Treasury, mentioning 12 of the plays so far listed (assuming that by Henry the 4 he means both Parts) along with another, Love's Labour's Won, apparently either a lost play or an alternative title for an extant one.

    Late in the century Shakespeare turned again to tragedy. A Swiss traveller saw *Julius Caesar in London in September 1599. *Hamlet apparently dates from the following year, but was only entered in the register of the Stationers' Company in July 1602; a short text probably reconstructed from memory by an actor appeared in 1603, and a good text printed from Shakespeare's manuscript in late 1604 (some copies bear the date 1605). A play that defies easy classification is *Troilus and Cressida, probably written 1602 printed 1609. The comedy *All's Well that Ends Well, too, is probably of this period, as is *Measure for Measure, played at court in December 1604. The tragedy *Othello, played at court the previous month, reached print abnormally late in 1622. *King Lear probably dates, in its first version, from 1605; the quarto printed in 1608 is now thought to have been badly printed from Shakespeare's original manuscript. The text printed in the Folio appears to represent a revision dating from a few years later. Much uncertainty surrounds *Timon of Athens, printed in the Folio from uncompleted papers, and probably written in collaboration with T. *Middleton. *Macbeth, probably adapted by Middleton, is generally dated 1606, *Antony and Cleopatra 1606-7, and *Coriolanus 1607-9.

    Towards the end of his career, though while still in his early forties, Shakespeare turned to romantic tragecomedy. Pericles, printed in a debased text 1609, certainly existed in hte previous year; it is the only play generally believed to be mostly, if not entirely, by Shakespeare that was not included in the 1623 Folio. Forman, the astrologer, records seeing both *Cymbeline and *The Winter's Tale in 1611. *The Tempest was given at court in Nov. 1611.

    The last three plays associated with Shakespeare appear to have been written in collaboration with J. *Fletcher. They are *Henry VIII, known in its own time as All Is True, which 'had been acted not passing 2 or three times' before the performance at the Globe during which the theatre burnt down on 29 June 1613.; a lost play, *Cardenio, acted by the King's Men in 1613 and attributed to the two dramatists in a Stationers' Register entry of 1653; and *The Two Noble Kinsmen, which appears to incorporate elements from a 1613 masque by F. Beaumont, and was first printed 1634. No Shakespeare play survived in authorial manuscript, though three pages of revisions to a manucript play, Sir Thomas *More, variously dated about 1593 or 1601, are often thought to be by Shakespeare and in his hand.

    It may have been soon after Shakespeare died, in 1616, that his colleagues *Heminges and Condell began to prepare Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, better known as the First Folio, which appeared in 1623. Only once before, in the 1616 *Jonson folio, had and English dramatist's plays appeared in collected form. Heminges and Condell, or their agents, worked with care, assembling manuscripts, providing reliable printed copy when it was available, but also causing quartos to be brought wholly or partially into line with prompt-books. Their volume includes a dedicatory epistle to William and Philip Herbert, earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, an address "To the great Variety of Readers' by themselves, and verse tributes, most notably the substantial poem by Jonson in which he declares that Shakespeare 'was not of an age, but for all time'. Above all, the Folio is important because it includes 16 plays which in all probability would not otherwise have survived. Its title-page engraving, by Droeshout, is, along with the half-length figure bust by Gheerart Janssen erected in Holy Trinity, Stratford, by 1623, the only image of Shakespeare with strong claims to authenticity. The Folio was reprinted three times in the 17th cent.; the second issue (1664) of the third edition adds Pericles and six more plays. Other plays, too, have been ascribed to Shakespeare, but few scholars would add anything to  the accepted canon except part (or even all) of *Edward III, printed anonymously 1596.

    Over 200 years after Shakespeare died, doubs were raised about the authenticity of his works (see BACONIAN THEORY). The product largely of snobbery—reluctance to believe that a man of humble origins wrote many of the world's greatest dramatic masterpieces—and of the desire for self-advertisement, they are best answered by the facts that the monument to William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon compares him with *Socrates and *Virgil, and that Jonson's verses in the Folio identify the author of that volume as the 'Sweet Swan of Avon'.

    The documents committed to print between 1593 and 1623 have generated an enormous amount of varied kinds of human activity. The first editor to try to bring them into order, reconcile their discrepancies, correct their errors, and present them for readers of his time was the dramatist *Rowe, in 1709. His 18th-cent. successors include *Pope (1723-5), *Theobald (1733), Dr *Johnson (1765), *Capell (1767-8), and *Malone (1790; third variorum 1821 by James Boswell the younger, out of Malone's edition). The most important 19th-cent. edition is the Cambridge Shakespeare (1863-6l, rev. 1891-3), on which the Globe text (1864) was based. The American New Variorum edition, still in progress, began to appear in 1871. Early in the 20th cent. advances in textual studies transformed attitudes to the text. Subsequent editions include *Quiller Couch's and J. Dover *Wilson's New Shakespeare (Cambridge, 1921-66), G. L. Kittredge's (1936), Peter Alexander's (1951) and the Riverside (1974). The Arden edition appeared originally 1899-1924; it was revised and largely replaced 1951-81. A new series, Arden 3, started to appear in 1995. The Oxford multi-volume edition (paperbacked as World's Classics) started to appear in 1982, and the New Cambridge in 1983. The Oxford single-volume edition, edited by S. Wells and G. Taylor, was published in 1986.

    Great critics who have written on Shakespeare include *Dryden, Samuel Johnson, S. T. *Coleridge, *Hazlitt, A.C. *Bradley, and (lesss reverenly) G. B. *Shaw. The German Shakespeare Jahrbuch has been appearing since 1865; othe major periodicals are Shakespeare Survey (annual from 1948), Shakespeare Quarterly (from 1950), and Shakespeare Studies (annual from 1965). The standard biographical studies are E. K. *Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems (2 vols., 1940), and S. *Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life (1975). The play scripts have been translated into over 90 languages and have inspired poets, novelists, dramatists, painters, composers, choreographers, film-makers, and other artists at all levels of creative activity. They have formed the basis for the English theatrical tradition, and they continue to find realization in readers' imaginations and in richly varied transmutations, on the world's stages.



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    Narratology in the Age of Cross-Disciplinary Narrative Research

    Un libro de la serie Narratologia: el volumen 20, editado por Sandra Heinen y Roy Sommer. En versión Scribd:








    Me citan en la página 59 y en la 63. Además de en la 3, claro.

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    Mi bibliografía sobre realidad virtual


    Paseando por Scribd, descubro pirateada (malo) o reeditada (bueno) o compartida (generoso) esta bibliografía mía sobre Realidad Virtual, uno de los cincuenta mil listados que debe incluir mi Bibliografía de Teoría literaria, Crítica y Filología —y otros temas, como se echa de ver. Aquí la reincrusto y así comes home again, on better judgment making, a este blog sobre rastros virtuales que de mí van quedando. 



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    Domingo, 19 de Enero de 2014 19:26. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Trabajos


    A Magnificent Landscape

    sábado, 12 de octubre de 2013

    A magnificent landscape

    Aquí estamos aguantando mecha con el mogollón de las fiestas del Pilar, del cual no participamos en absoluto, y con un sol casi de justicia. Mentalmente estamos en algún otro paisaje más norteño y solitario, far from the madding crowd, y si es posible bien acompañados. Porque, para soledad, es difícil superar la soledad de la muchedumbre.

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    Miércoles, 22 de Enero de 2014 17:27. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes




    Mi bibliografía sobre HENRY V de Shakespeare

    sábado, 12 de octubre de 2013

    Mi bibliografía sobre HENRY V de Shakespeare

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    Miércoles, 22 de Enero de 2014 17:30. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Literatura y crítica


    Chavales paleando 2

    domingo, 13 de octubre de 2013

    Chavales paleando 2

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    Miércoles, 22 de Enero de 2014 17:31. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Meteor Man / Repo

    Meteor Man / Repo. Este blog lo tengo que ir jubilando, ya apenas puedo poner vídeos... Visiten directamente el otro.

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    Miércoles, 22 de Enero de 2014 17:33. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Música


    Un bache en mi carrera

    domingo, 13 de octubre de 2013

    Un bache en mi carrera

    Según la herramienta conocida (o desconocida) como Google Ngram Viewer, éste es el gráfico que describe mi carrera, basado en las citas sobre mí que aparecen en el Texto Universal:

    ngram2013

    Es sorprendente esa rápida subida en los 90, tras una tímida aparición a finales de los 80, tras tantas décadas con el mundo intelectual ignorándome, o no sospechando siquiera que yo iba a existir en un futuro. Ni la menor premonición hay. Y otra cosa que llama la atención es ese bachecillo en mi carrera hacia 2003, tocando fondo en 2004. Es más que una desaceleración. Luego la subida continúa, optimista como un gráfico bancario, hasta 2008 hasta donde llegan los datos. Creo que esa recuperación se debe a mi aterrizaje en la Red—pero vaya usted a saber.

     


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    Miércoles, 22 de Enero de 2014 17:35. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Personales


    A Lecture on Milton's "Lycidas"

    jueves, 17 de octubre de 2013

    A lecture on Milton's LYCIDAS

     


    FIRST PART



    Second part.

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    Una bibliografía sobre Heidegger

    jueves, 17 de octubre de 2013

    Una bibliografía sobre Heidegger

    —gran filósofo alemán del siglo XX, colaboracionista nazi y superviviente oportunista, flotante en todo líquido, fluido o viscoso. Yo la hice, y Javier Prezioso la colgó en Scribd:



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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 15:00. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Filosofía




    Searle en mi bibliografía

    viernes, 18 de octubre de 2013

    Searle en mi bibliografía

    Y en Scribd, y aquí. De J. R. Searle, teorizador de los actos de habla, de la intencionalidad y de la consciencia, oí hablar por primera vez creo en 1984, en las clases de pragmática que nos daba Carmen Olivares a veces en lugar de la didáctica de la lengua inglesa, que le aburría. Y me sirvió mucho para mi tesis aquí y para mi tesis de máster en Brown; lo leí bastante en los 80. Y la polémica que con él tuvo Derrida, en Limited Inc. Ahí sigue encapsulada la polémica, como en un vial of consciousness. Últimamente lo he vuelto a encontrar en YouTube, como a tantos famosos profesores y pensadores que jamás pensé ver por la tele. También allí queda encapsulado mucho pasado que era presente mientras lo filmaban—y que en parte sigue siendo no lo que ya pasó, sino lo que ya está y sigue estando presente





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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 15:03. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Semiótica




    Three Birds, Two Boys

    viernes, 18 de octubre de 2013

    Three birds, two boys

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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 15:05. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Garrick, Shakespeare, y la paradoja del comediante

    sábado, 19 de octubre de 2013

    Garrick, Shakespeare, y la paradoja del comediante

    En su diálogo crítico Paradoxe sur le comédien (escrito hacia 1773, publicado en 1830) Diderot enfrentaba dos tesis contrapuestas sobre la actuación teatral. Uno de los interlocutores (el segundo) sostiene allí la tesis convencional de que los grandes actores son seres de una sensibilidad extrema. Son capaces de sentir profundamente, y de revivir en sí mismos las emociones de los personajes que interpretan, lo cual les da su capacidad superior de expresar y de comunicar estos sentimientos. Es un poco la tesis Stanislavsky, si se quiere (ya se ve que haría fortuna otra vez en el siglo XX): el actor debe identificarse con el personaje, transformarse en él, y luego actuar movido espontáneamente desde dentro, movido de manera natural por las pasiones que siente o por la personalidad que le ha poseído.

    El otro interlocutor, el primero, portavoz de Diderot, lleva a un extremo la tesis contraria, y en cierto sentido no menos convencional. A saber, que el actor no siente realmente lo que comunica, sino que está fingiendo, imitando, sin implicar sus emociones reales, sino meramente haciendo una recreación racional de los signos externos de la emoción. Una actuación, puro teatro.

    Algo hay en estas tesis así formuladas que ofende al sentido común, pues en cierto sentido queremos creer en las dos. No es ésa sin embargo la paradoja señalada por Diderot (aunque sí es la paradoja que yo veo); la paradoja de Diderot está contendia íntegramente en la segunda tesis—la del primer intelocutor, no se me líen. Que el actor no siente ni padece, pero es capaz de imitar, comunicar y transmitir esos sentimientos tanto mejor cuanto menos de su propia sensibilidad esté implicada en la representación del papel. La actuación es, nos dice Diderot a través de su primer interlocutor, una actividad eminentemente racional, y no pasional ni emocional; se basa en una recreación racional del personaje, no en una identificación emotiva con él.
     
    En este pasaje ambos interlocutores parecen estar de acuerdo ya, pues describen esa tesis "paradójica" aplicándola tanto al teatro como a la teatralidad de la vida social en la corte:


    LE PREMIER (...)
    Je te prends à témoin, Roscius anglais, célèbre Garrick, toi qui, du consentement unanime de toutes les nations subsistantes passes pour le premier comédien qu'elles aient connu, rends hommage à la vérité! Ne m'as tu pas dit que, quoique tu sentisses fortement, ton action serait faible, si, quelle que fût la passion ou le caractère que tu avais à rendre, tu ne savais t'élever par la pensée à la grandeur d'un fantôme homérique auquel tu cherchais à t'identifier? Lorsque je t'objectai que ce n'était donc pas d'après toi que tu jouais, confesse ta réponse: ne m'avouas-tu pas que tu t'en gardais bien, et que tu ne paraissais si étonnant sur la scène, que parce que tu montrais sans cesse au spectacle un être d'imagination qui n'était pas toi?

    LE SECOND
    L'âme d'un grand comédien a été formée de l'élément subtil dont notre philosophe remplissait l'espace qui n'est ni froid, ni chaud, ni pesant, ni léger, qui n'affecte aucune forme déterminée, et qui, également susceptible de toutes, n'en conserve aucune.

    LE PREMIER
    Un grand comédien n'est ni un piano-forté, ni une harpe, ni un clavecin, ni un violon ni un violoncelle; il n'a point d'accord qui lui soit propre; mais il prend l'accord et le ton qui conviennent à sa partie, et il sit se prêter à toutes. J'ai une haute idée du talent d'un grand comédien: cet homme est rare, aussi rare et peut-être plus grand que le poète.
        Celui qui dans la société se propose et a le malheur de plaire à tous, n'est rien, n'a rien qui lui appartienne, qui le distingue, qui engoue les uns et qui fatigue les autres. Il parle toujours, et toujours bien; c'est un adulateur de professions, c'est un grand courtisan, c'est un grand comédien.

    LE SECOND
    Un grand courtisan, accoutumé, depuis qu'il respire, au rôle d'un pantin merveilleux, prend toutes sortes de formes, au gré de la ficelle qui est entre les mains de son maître.

    LE PREMIER
    Un grand comédien est un autre pantin merveilleux dont le poète tient la ficelle, et auquel il indique à chaque ligne la véritable forme qui'il doit prendre.

    LE SECOND
    Ainsi un courtisan, un comédien, qui ne peuvent prendre qu'une forme, quelque belle, quelque belle intéressante qu'elle soit, ne son que deux mauvais pantins?


    Diderot se recrea en su tesis narrando incongruencias entre los dos niveles de actuación de los actores, en tanto que personaje y en tanto que actor en la escena—una actriz se sale del personaje para recriminar al público y vuelve a entrar en él inmediatamente.... O bien, mientras la dama abraza y besa a su galán convincientemente, la actriz le dice al actor "esta noche hueles que apestas"—etc.; Son ejemplos en los que los actores no "se meten" en el personaje, sino que sólo lo proyectan exteriormente, en un ejercicio controlado y racional. Y sin embargo también ha de admitir le premier el poder de enajenación del actor, su versatilidad especial a la hora de materializar un personaje, con una capacidad de transformación que maravilla en grandes actores como Garrick. Es una ficción enormemente lograda—o, enormemente lograda, pero sólo una ficción, sin asomo de sentimiento real de la persona que interpreta. Eso inquieta y molesta al segundo interlocutor, que se siente estafado y quiere ir al teatro a sentir emociones auténticas—quizá sienta que las emociones del espectador se ven contagiadas de esa falta de realidad que le expone la paradoja del comediante:

    LE SECOND
    C'est à me dégoûter du théâtre.

    LE PREMIER
    Et pourquoi? Si ces gens-là n'étaient capables de ces tours de force, c'est alors qu'il n'y faudrait pas aller. Ce que je vais vous raconter, je l'ai vu.
        Garrick passe sa tête entre les deux battants d'une porte, et, dans l'intervalle de quatre à cinq secondes, son visage passe successivement de la joie folle à la joie modérée, de cette joie à la tranquillité, de la tranquillité à la suprise, de la surprise à l'étonnement, de l'étonnement à la tristesse, de la tristesse à l'abattement, de l'abattement à l'effroi, de l'effroi à l'horreur, de l'horreur au désespoir, et remonte de ce dernier degré à celui d'où il était descendu. Est-ce que son âme a pu éprouver toutes ces sensations et éxecuter, de concert avec son visage, cette espèce de gamme? Je n'en crois rien, ni vous non plus. Si vous demandiez à cet homme célèbre, qui lui seul méritait autant qu'on fît le voyage d'Angleterre que tous les restes de Rome méritent qu'on fasse le voyage d'Italie; si vous lui demandiez, dis-je, la scène du Petit Garçon pâtissier, il vous la jouait; si vous lui demandiez tout de suite la scène d'Hamlet, il vous la jouait, également prêt à pleurer la chute de ses petits pâtés et à suivre dans l'air le chemin d'un poignard. Es-ce qu'on rit, est-ce qu'on pleure à discrétion? On en fait la grimace plus ou moins fidèle, plus ou moins trompeuse, selon qu'on est ou qu'on n'est pas Garrick.


    Por cierto que Diderot parece confundir aquí dos escenas que debió ver interpretar a Garrick, la escena del puñal de Hamlet, y la escena del puñal de Macbeth—es en Macbeth donde el protagonista sigue en el aire el camino de un puñal, pero seguramente cuando Garrick actuó ante Diderot, en algún salon literario, los dos puñales eran puramente mentales, o uno de los dos doblemente mental si se quiere.

    Diderot, o "le premier", cita precedentes para su paradoja—

    Au reste, la question que j'approfondis a été autrefois entamée entre un médiocre littérateur, Rémond de Saint-Albine, et un grand comédien, Riccoboni. Le littérateur plaidait la cause de la sensibilité, le comédien plaidait la mienne. C'est une anecdote que j'ignorais et que je viens d'apprendre.


    —aquí se echa de ver cómo Diderot fue componiendo su diálogo a lo largo de una temporada, e intercambiando ideas con otros interlocutores aparte de "el segundo". De todos modos, también ha citado a Garrick como otro gran actor que comparte su tesis, frente a la simplista creencia sentimentalista de Rémond de Saint-Albine o de "el segundo", muy propia de la era de la sensibilidad (y hay que decir que el mismo Diderot tiene mucho de sentimental en su estilo dramático). También podría citar a Shakespeare, quizá, en ese famoso episodio en el que Hamlet da instrucciones a los actores que van a representar "La Ratonera", teatro dentro del teatro. Allí les recomienda Hamlet un modo de actuar natural, evitando la grandilocuencia y la exageración—"cualquier cosa hecha en demasía se aparta de la finalidad del teatro"; especifica que debe operar el control, la racionalidad podríamos decir, aun en medio de la pasión de la actuación:

    in the very torrent, tempest, and as I may say the whirlwind of your passion, you must acquire and beget a temperance that may give it smoothness. (Hamlet 3.2)


    Y, meditando sobre el contraste entre sus propias emociones y las emociones representadas en la escena por los actores, Hamlet considera a éstas no emociones auténticas, sino "a fiction", "a dream of passion"—una ficción invocada forzando el alma para adaptarla a una idea, a una concepción (la creada por el poeta). Obsérvese sin embargo cómo es toda el alma y el cuerpo del actor los que se adaptan para hacer vívida y presente esa idea, según Hamlet. Y Hamlet sueña con un teatro imposible, casi posible aquí por el juego metadramático, en el que el actor fundiría ficción y realidad, actuando ante el público con sentimientos auténticos—una actuación tal que ahogaría el escenario en lágrimas, enloquecería a los culpables y dejaría abatidos a los inocentes, confundiendo a los ignorantes y pasmando a la vista y al oído. Parece que Shakespeare, o Hamlet, aun reconociendo la paradoja del comediante, se ve tentado de confundir en uno realidad y ficción, en un espectáculo total (lo que en cierto modo es lo que sucede en el final de The Spanish Tragedy de Kyd, y en cierto modo en el propio Hamlet). Sería la apoteosis del teatro sentimental, y a la vez un espectáculo dramático tan extremo como lo es la vida misma. 

    Garrick se hizo famoso, sobre todo, con sus papeles shakespeareanos. Y es curioso que la tesis de Diderot sobre el comediante, también aplicada por él de refilón a los poetas, se ha aplicado con especial énfasis en el caso de Shakespeare, poeta comediante, o dramaturgo actor.  Recuérdese la disquisición de Coleridge en Biographia Literaria, contrastando las figuras de Shakespeare y Milton. Milton es monocolor o monológico: trata de todas las cosas del universo pero las convierte en él mismo; Shakespeare, en cambio, es plástico y fluido, nos da la abundancia de la humanidad ("here is God's plenty", decía Dryden) pero en su multiplicidad original, desapareciendo de la escena él mismo, y dando paso a sus caracteres, hablando a través de ellos pero perfectamente transfigurado en ellos. Claro que aqui se enfatiza más bien la capacidad de transformación que la modalidad específica de esa transformación, la manera de lograrla.

    También Borges habla de la curiosa falta de sustancia de Shakespeare, en este pasaje que podríamos considerar como la mejor página jamás escrita sobre Shakespeare. Y en su reciente biografía de Shakespeare, Peter Ackroyd terminaba un tanto pasmado ante la incapacidad de deducir una personalidad o persona concreta detrás de la obra de Shakespeare, hasta tal punto se diluye éste entre sus caracteres.

    No sé cuál es la solución a la paradoja. Pero un curioso punto de encuentro a la tesis contraria aparece en el interlocutor primero cuando, con toda su defensa de la racionalidad del actor, ha de concluir sin embargo en proporcionarle una especie de carencia de personalidad, o de sustancialidad plegable y vacía, amoldable a todo carácter. Es una racionalidad que opera sobre una materia especialmente amoldable, o sobre una especie de ausencia de sí. El perfecto actor es un perfecto sin sustancia—y hasta allí quizá podríamos llegar. Lo llamativo y paradójico es que se pueda aplicar el mismo argumento al perfecto poeta. Pero así nos lo decía el propio Shakespeare, o quizá Teseo, en A Midsummer Night's Dream:

    Lovers and madmen have such seething brains,
    Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend
    More than cool reason ever comprehends.
    The lunatic, the lover, and the poet
    Are of imagination all compact.
    One sees more devils than vast hell can hold:
    That is the madman. The lover, all as frantic,
    Sees Helen's beauty in a brow of Egypt.
    The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
    Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven,
    And as imagination bodies forth
    The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
    Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing
    A local habitation and a name.


    Y esta airy nothing que quizá destila el poeta de su propia carencia de sustancia concreta me recuerda, por último, a otro diálogo sobre la insustancialidad del poeta y del actor—Ion, de Platón, la primera obra de crítica poética y teatral quizá, en la tradición occidental. El poeta, el actor, el personaje, el rapsoda que los combina a los tres, son ahí seres de aire, sin sustancia propia:

    the craft of the poet is light and winged and holy, and he is not capable of poetry until he is inspired by the gods and out of his mind and there is no reason in him. Until he gets into this state, any man is powerless to produce poetry and to prophesy.


    En suma, que la paradoja del comediante es todavía más paradójica de lo que parecía, porque la tesis racionalista de Diderot, una vez admite la plasticidad casi inhumana de la mente del actor, deriva casi espontáneamente en su contraria. La racionalidad expresada por el actor no es la suya propia, sino la transmitida por el poeta que se infunde en él. Y la racionalidad del poeta tiene mucho de transmisión inconsciente de fuerzas que él mismo es incapaz de analizar, por bien que las exprese convirtiéndose en un instrumento multiforme que no está perfectamente bajo control ni comprensión racional. Me inclino más bien, por tanto, hacia una síntesis de las dos posiciones antitéticas que aparecen en la Paradoja del comediante. La teoría de las neuronas espejo puede que lleve a iluminar cómo es posible que una emoción representada sea a la vez auténtica e inauténtica—realizada con los mismos mecanismos cognitivos que la experiencia auténtica, y sin embargo inhibida o modificada de manera que permite manipularla mejor y utilizarla como material de construcción de una experiencia virtual comunicable. Quizá un día la neurología nos informe mejor de qué es lo que pasa en el cerebro de los poetas, y de los actores, y de los espectadores que se unen hipnóticamente a la experiencia de la ficción. Con una cadena de anillos magnetizados lo comparaba Platón, en Ion: así los poetas, actores y espectadores extraen su energía unos de otros, y se la transmiten en un espacio mental que se abre para esa experiencia en medio de la realidad, y a la vez al margen de ella.

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    Rocas, mujer y arena

    lunes, 14 de octubre de 2013

    Rocas, mujer y arena

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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 14:46. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    La Realidad como Expectativa Autocumplida

    martes, 15 de octubre de 2013

    La Realidad como Expectativa Autocumplida

    Reincrusto aquí un artículo mío que he encontrado, por duplicado, en Scribd:




    El otro:

    Goffman - Realidad autocumplida - U Zaragoza (Francisco Ruiz)





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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 14:48. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Filosofía


    Me echa Google—¿o no?

    martes, 15 de octubre de 2013

    Me echa Google (¿o no?)

    Bueno, al fin caigo en ello; el descenso de visitantes a mi bibliografía se debe básicamente a que Google ya no envía allí a nadie. Por extrañas razones—visto que con términos de búsqueda como "Literary Criticism", "Literary theory", etc., sigue apareciendo bien posicionada la bibliografía en Google—pero el caso es que antes Google era mi proveedor número uno de visitas, mío y de todo el mundo, claro—y ahora apenas si figura en las estadísticas. La mayoría de mis visitantes vienen ahora a través de los varios enlaces de la Wikipedia, y también de los muchos enlaces que tengo en sitios académicos (todos juntos, sin embargo, apenas le hacen sombra a la Wikipedia—He ahí el lado siniestro de la Wikipedia, que tiende a convertirse en la Fuente Única). En fin, así va variando la información y la informática. Solía yo tener en tiempos entre 100 y 150 visitas diarias a la bibliografía; ahora más bien rondan las 25. Claro que visto lo que ha proliferado mi bibliografía en Scribd, y visto además que el contador sólo cuenta las visitas que pasan por la página principal, deben ser muchas más las visitas. Teniendo en cuenta que pueden ir a parar en principio a cualquiera de las otras 5000 páginas / archivos.... Así que me quedaré sin saber cuántas visitas tengo, porque ¿instalar 5000 contadores? No gracias, no me llega hasta allí la curiosidad, y visto el éxito de uno que tengo, sería matar moscas a cañonazos. Así que me quedaré mirando ese contador mientras voy bajando por la suave pendiente, down cemetery road.


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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 14:49. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Internet


    Bardolatry in the Bud

    martes, 15 de octubre de 2013

    Bardolatry in the Bud


    John Weever tiene la distinción de ser el primer autor que dedicó una obra a Shakespeare, sea crítica o artística, que las dos cosas es este soneto publicado en 1599, cuando Shakespeare era aún un novedoso autor de 35 años. Lo más interesante es que muestra hasta qué punto la bardolatría o veneración a Shakespeare se remonta hasta la década de 1590... la década misma en que se ganó la fama—pues la primera referencia a Shakespeare como autor de nada es de 1592. Las obras a que se refiere el soneto son de los años 1593-94, y el soneto bien podría ser anterior a la fecha de publicación, de mediados de los 90; no deja de recordar al primer diálogo de Romeo y de Julieta la analogía erótica entre el amor de los lectores a Shakespeare y el de los devotos a los santos. Considerémoslo, pues, como el documento inaugural de la Bardolatría. El texto y las notas vienen del Norton Shakespeare editado por Stephen Greenblatt.


    [This sonnet, which follows the "Shakespearean" rhyme scheme, was published in a collection entitled Epigrammes in the oldest Cut, and newest Fashion. Like many of the other references to Shakespeare's writings in this period, Weever's poem pays less attention to the plays than the narrative poems, which were of higher literary status and (to judge, for example, from the Parnassus plays) popular among young men of fashion. Weever (1576-1632) was himself a student at Cambridge not long before this poem was published. The text is from [E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930], vol. 2]. 

    Ad Gulielmum Shakespeare.
     


    Honie-tongued Shakespeare when I saw thine issue
    I swore Apollo got them (1) and none other,
    Their rosie-tainted features cloth'd in tissue, (2)
    Some heaven born goddesse said to be their mother:
    Rose-checkt (3) Adonis with his amber tresses,
    Faire fire-hot Venus charming him to love her,
    Chaste Lucretia virgine-like her dresses,
    Prowd lust-stung Tarquine seeking still to prove (4) her:
    Romea Richard; more whose names I know not,
    Their sugred tongues, and power attractive beuty
    Say they are Saints althogh that Sts they shew not
    For thousands vowes to them subjective dutie: (5)
    They burn in love thy children Shakespeare het them,
    Go, wo thy muse more Nymphish brood beget them. (6)


    1. when . . . them: Shakespeare's poetic productions ("issue") are so perfect they seem to have been created (begotten) by the patron of poets, Apollo, himself. The identification of Shakespeare's muse as goddess (line 4) or nymph (line 14) continues the trope of divine inspiration.

    2. Rich fabric. tainted: tinted.

    3. Cheeked.

    4. Attempt.

    5. Their . . . dutie: Shakespeare's characters are so compelling that they have elicited the devotion ordinarily given to saints. Their actions may not be saintly ("Sts they show not"), but "thousands" have given to them the devotion a subject gives a sovereign.

    6. They burn . . . them: the antecedent for "they" is "thousands" in line 12; with modern spelling and punctuation, the couplet might read: "They burn in love; thy children, Shakespeare, het [heated] them. / Go woo thy muse, more nymphish brood beget them."




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    Bright Cold Summer

    martes, 15 de octubre de 2013

    Bright cold summer

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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 14:51. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Poetry and Virginity

    martes, 15 de octubre de 2013

    4. Poetry and Virginity

    A lecture on Milton's Comus, by John Rogers (Yale University)





     Milton's first publication, A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle (a.k.a. Comus), is examined. Milton's vision of a poet's heaven in "Ad Patrem," paired with the letter to Charles Diodati, with its particular emphasis on the need for chastity in poets, is used as a springboard to a discussion of the depiction of sexual ideals in the masque. Revelation 14, 1 Corinthians, and the Apology for Smectymnuus are also discussed at length, as are the poet's biography and the history of the masque's title.
    POETRY AND VIRGINITY

    00:00 - Chapter 1. "Ad Patrem": A Poem to Milton's Father
    08:33 - Chapter 2. "An Apology for Smectymnuus"
    16:34 - Chapter 3. "Comus: A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle"


    Continuation, and second lecture on Milton's Comus: "Poetry and Marriage".



    From a series of video lectures, a complete course, on Milton, at YouTube (YaleCourses).

    Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses

    This course was recorded in Fall 2007.

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    Individuo y espacio público

    miércoles, 16 de octubre de 2013

    Individuo y espacio público


    Con razón o sin razón, he ido a parar aun grupo de investigación sobre hermenéutica y antropología fenomenológica. Llámesele HERAF. Y ahora se organiza el primer seminario del grupo, que iba a ser una cosilla así interna y de poca monta pero está creciendo alarmantemente, ya tiene sesiones públicas y cartel anunciador.

    En mi ponencia no hay una errata, se titula, en efecto, "La evolución del dividuo social y de los espacios públicos". A lo que voy es que el individuo es tan individuo como el átomo es á.

    Y de hecho no querría establecer una división tajante entre el dividuo y los espacios públicos, o entre los espacios públicos y los espacios privados internos al sujeto. Remitamos de momento aquí no más.

    _______

    La primera conferencia / coloquio del seminario:

    El miércoles, 23 octubre de 2013, a las 11 horas, en el Salón de Actos de la Biblioteca de Humanidades “María Moliner”, tendrá lugar la
    Conferencia inaugural del I Seminario Permanente del Grupo de Investigación HERAF (Hermenéutica y Antropología Fenomenológica. H69):
    “Bourdieu contra Habermas: tipo ideal, campo social, matriz discursiva”, a cargo de JOSEP MARIA BECH (Universidad de Barcelona).
     
    Más información en http://fyl.unizar.es/

    Salón de Actos de la Biblioteca de Humanidades “María Moliner”.
    miércoles, 23 octubre de 2013, a las 11 horas.

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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 14:54. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Filosofía


    Beatriz muy guapa en el bosque de eucaliptos

    miércoles, 16 de octubre de 2013

    Beatriz muy guapa en el bosque de eucaliptos

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    Sábado, 25 de Enero de 2014 14:55. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Bibliografía sobre W. B. Yeats

    miércoles, 16 de octubre de 2013

    Bibliografía sobre W. B. Yeats

    Objet trouvé à Scribd:



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    The Building in the Sea

    sábado, 19 de octubre de 2013

    The building in the Sea

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    Lunes, 27 de Enero de 2014 12:21. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Bibliografía sobre Samuel Richardson

    sábado, 19 de octubre de 2013

    Bibliografía sobre Samuel Richardson

    Richardson.S by Me

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    El stock de Librería Pórtico

    sábado, 19 de octubre de 2013

    El stock de Librería Pórtico

    Este es el stock de la Librería Pórtico, con un montón de títulos de las diversas áreas de humanidades. Está en Zaragoza, la calle Muñoz Seca, calle casi invisible. Hay que ir de propio, o no pasaréis jamás por allí.


    ;

    » Prehª-Arqueología-Epigrafía-Numismática  6821 tit.
      - Prehistoria  2705 tit.
      - Arte rupestre  225 tit.
      - Arqueología  4170 tit.
      - Arqueología griega  271 tit.
      - Epigrafía  345 tit.
      - Numismática  281 tit.
    » Egiptología  443 tit.
    » Arqueología medieval  1135 tit.
    » Patrimonio  789 tit.
    » Mundo antiguo  3644 tit.
      - Derecho romano  116 tit.
      - Filología clásica  1348 tit.
      - Historia antigua  2588 tit.
      - Historia antigua. España  292 tit.
      - Historia antigua. Roma  945 tit.
    » Oriente antiguo  644 tit.

    » Hª. Metodología y obras grales.  3974 tit.
      - Archivística  177 tit.
      - Paleografía - Diplomática  76 tit.
    » Hª medieval  3602 tit.
    » Hª moderna  3154 tit.
    » Hª contemporánea  2269 tit.
    » Hª del pensamiento económico  201 tit.
    » Hª y filosofía del derecho  1068 tit.
    » Hª de la ciencia  3859 tit.
      - Historia de la medicina  1075 tit.
      - Historia de las ciencias de la tierra  237 tit.
      - Historia de la tecnología  732 tit.
    » Hª de la Universidad  128 tit.

    » Lingüística  3390 tit.
      - Lingüística románica  1149 tit.
      - Sociolingüística  144 tit.
    » Teoría y crítica literarias  982 tit.
    » Literatura hispánica (española, catalana, gallega y portuguesa  4571 tit.
      - Literatura española  3375 tit.
      - Literatura iberoamericana  963 tit.
      - Literatura catalana  196 tit.
      - Literatura gallega  37 tit.
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    » Literatura francesa  528 tit.
    » Literatura inglesa  331 tit.
    » Literatura italiana  53 tit.
    » Literatura medieval  762 tit.
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    » América  1411 tit.
    » Antropología  1717 tit.

    » Arte  4456 tit.
      - Castillos-Fortificaciones 123 tit.
    » Música 1504 tit.
    » Cine - Fotografía 262 tit.
    » Patrimonio  789 tit.

    » Biología marina 57 tit.
    » Botánica 205 tit.
    » Geografía 1293 tit.
    » Geología 320 tit.

    » Aragón  433 tit.
    » Biblioteconomía 722 tit.
    » Ciencia política 629 tit.
    » Estudios árabes e islámicos  2836 tit.
    » Estudios asiáticos 405 tit.
    » Filosofía 1164 tit.
    » Prensa-Radio-TV 219 tit.



    La de libros que compré yo en Pórtico el siglo pasado, y hasta hace diez años pongamos... cuando compraba yo libros en masa, y también la Universidad. Ahora me esfuerzo por leer los que tengo, y pocos más adquiero. Mis estantes no leídos vivirán mucho, mucho más que yo.


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    Summer Evening Bea

    domingo, 20 de octubre de 2013

    Summer Evening Bea

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    Lunes, 27 de Enero de 2014 12:26. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    La faute à Voltaire

    domingo, 20 de octubre de 2013

    La faute à Voltaire



    La faute à Voltaire from Jose Angel García Landa on Vimeo.


    Esta canción de Gavroche se olvidaron de incluirla en la película de  Los Miserables. Y con ella cumplo 300 vídeos en Vimeo—con lo cual me parece que de momento lo dejaré allí. Este es el canal de mis músicas en Vimeo, donde, por cierto, veo que me he olvidado de incluir más de veinte canciones. Con ponerlo al día, daremos el asunto por clausurado.

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    Lunes, 27 de Enero de 2014 12:27. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Músicas mías


    Biblio Julio Cortázar

    domingo, 20 de octubre de 2013

    Biblio Julio Cortázar

    Sigo encontrando cosas mías por Scribd, "la mayor biblioteca electrónica del mundo".  Por ejemplo esta bibliografía de cosas un tanto sueltas sobre Julio Cortázar y la crítica:



    Cortazar.J by myself.


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    Sobre la doctrina Parot

    lunes, 21 de octubre de 2013

    Sobre la doctrina Parot

    Por un tecnicismo legal, que a todos querríamos que se nos aplicase en el caso de ellos, se ha anulado la aplicación retroactiva de la llamada "doctrina Parot" sobre remisión de penas, y se va a soltar a una larga lista de asesinos múltiples, la mayoría de entre ellos etarras. Al parecer fue el PSOE, por sus pactos con la ETA, quien movió los papeles para que se llegue en Europa a esta decisión.  Y seguramente será legal una vez se tome, y se aplicará—con lo cual un asesinato se redime con la misma facilidad que veinte, y los asesinos, ya sean a sueldo o por hobby, salen a menos de un año de cárcel por asesinato.

    Y encima hay que indemnizarlos, por no haberlos soltado antes, con miles de euros a cargo de nuestros impuestos. Indemnizar a los asesinos condenados a cientos o miles de años de cárcel, por no soltarlos a tiempo.

    La culpa, claro, es de las leyes mal hechas. De la estúpida legislación española que habla de miles y miles de años de cárcel, que en realidad se pueden quedar en unos años a la sombra. O que condena a uno o dos años de cárcel siempre imaginaria a políticos corruptos y sus asociados (nunca llegan a verla de verdad). Y a veces la ley se queda en papel mojado porque lo que va a misa es la letra pequeña del reglamento penitenciario, que regula las redenciones de pena con una ligereza que no guarda ninguna relación racional con las condenas.

    ¿Qué partidos son los que han hecho esta legislación absurda y delincuente? ¿Se ha tomado alguna medida contra los responsables—diputados, presidentes del gobierno y ministros de justicia que se han tomado tan a la ligera sus obligaciones, y las nociones más elementales de justicia? ¿Han pedido disculpas a la sociedad, pregunta retórica, por este pequeño fallo "de detalle"?

    Lejos de eso, el PSOE por ejemplo ha colocado al jurista que se ha encargado de llevar adelante la derogación de la doctrina Parot. Pues hale, ahí los tienen, a disfrutar con ellos, y vótenles otra vez si les han gustado.


    _____


    Un comentario sobre la sentencia del tribunal superior europeo de derechos humanos.

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    Lunes, 27 de Enero de 2014 12:29. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Política


    Defensa de la Filología

    lunes, 21 de octubre de 2013

    Defensa de la Filología

    Aparece en CoolEssays un trabajo mío titulado "Filología, Lingüística y Teoría Literaria: Sobre 'subáreas' e interfaces en Filología Inglesa." Lo publiqué en mi web hace tiempo, y en el SSRN, y ahora lo reencuentro convertido a nuevo formato. Ocho páginas en red, más bien unas 40 páginas tamaño folio, que vienen de mi fallida memoria de cátedras de hace diez años.  Cometí la "osadía" de presentarme a una plaza de Filología Inglesa, con tareas docentes en "lingüística inglesa", con un currículum investigador centrado en la teoría literaria, el análisis del discurso, la narratología, estilística y teoría de la interpretación. Como ya venía avisado por la presidenta del tribunal de que no se veía mi candidatura favorablemente, me pertreché para justificar teóricamente lo que quizá no haría falta justificar en principio: que el estudio de la Filología Inglesa requiere tanto el conocimiento de la lengua como de la literatura; que los estudios de teoría literaria, narratología, estilística, etc., son inherentemente lingüísticos, y que la interfaz entre estudios lingüísticos y literarios es el meollo mismo y definición de la disciplina de Filología.

    Que si quieres.

    El tribunal se despachó por la vía rápida, alabando la calidad de mi trayectoria y de mis publicaciones, pero negándose en redondo a aceptar que estas cuestiones tuviesen nada que ver con la lingüística. Al parecer el tribunal entendía por "lingüística" única y estrictamente "gramática"—una pequeña confusión interesada que les hubiera costado un cero patatero en un examen de lingüística de primero.

    Hay que decir que la idea misma de Filología al parecer desagrada a muchos de nuestros filólogos, que prefieren concebirse a sí mismos como "lingüistas" o "literatos" ignorando en la medida de lo posible el terreno común o interfaz que los une, o fumigándolo si es preciso. La Filología se considera una cosa decimonónica y digna de ser desmantelada. Pasmoso, pero es así. De ahí que nuestro grado haya dejado de llamarse "Filología Inglesa" para pasar a llamarse "Estudios ingleses". 

    Al dejarse vacante la cátedra, recurrí al Rectorado, que guardó silencio administrativo, callado como una tumba esperando enterrar la cuestión. Y recurrí a los juzgados, que en sustancia dieron la razón al tribunal por un razonamiento típico de la justicia española. A saber, como los miembros del tribunal son el tribunal, tienen razón por definición en todo lo que digan sobre su área, que para eso son los expertos. Las irregularidades formales, que también las hubo a manta, las justificaron todas los jueces como si les fuese la vida en ello. Y a correr.

    Esta resolución mereció un detallado comentario estilístico-jurídico que le dediqué en varios capítulos. En cuanto a la plaza de cátedra, largos años vacante, fue a donde tenía que ir a parar, a gente con más apoyos y mejor relacionada con los catedráticos del departamento. Y que, si no hacían gramática, sí hacían una lingüística más del gusto de los oídos del tribunal.

    En fin, allá queda un trozo de mi argumentación sobre la filología y la lingüística, for what it's worth.


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    Lunes, 27 de Enero de 2014 12:31. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Cátedra


    Oedipus the King (1968)

    miércoles, 23 de octubre de 2013

    Oedipus the King (1968)




    Oedipus the King. Sophocles' tragedy, trans. Paul Roche. Dir. Philip Saville. Adapt. Michael Luke and Philip Saville. Cast: Christopher Plummer, Orson Welles, Lilli Palmer, Richard Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Roger Livesey, Donald Sutherland. Art dir. Yiannis Migadis. Ed. Paul Davies. Photog. Walter Lassally. Music by Jani Christou. Assoc. Prod. Timothy Burrill. Prod. Michael Luke. 1968.

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    Bibliografía sobre ordenadores

    jueves, 24 de octubre de 2013

    Bibliografía sobre ordenadores

    Hallada en Scribd mi bibliografía sobre ordenadores. Que es sólo una de entre varias de la sección "cibernética", sobre cosas digitales, TICs, Internet, blogs, sitios web y demás, de mi Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism, and Philology. Reimpresa en su pantalla por cortesía de Javier 1000, whoever that may be.

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 17:54. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Internet


    Otra vez huelga obligatoria

    jueves, 24 de octubre de 2013

    Otra vez huelga obligatoria

    La Universidad de Zaragoza, típica en su género, cada vez que hay huelga cierra sus puertas e impide el acceso al campus.

    Esto es lo que se llama huelga obligatoria, algo que no tiene cabida en la constitución, ni en ninguna ley de huelga imaginable que pudiese haber (que no la hay). Pero siempre que la UGT-CCOO declara huelga, y sólo cuando ellos la declaran, se cierra el acceso al campus de la plaza de San Francisco. Y el que no quiera hacer huelga, ni puede acceder ni aparcar, y si insiste tiene que ponerse a saltar tapias y barricadas, y a sufrir los insultos y escupitajos de los piquetes. Yo estoy de huelga hoy, pero ASI NO. Así me pongo de huelga contra la huelga. Cada vez que pasa esto llamo al Rectorado, donde los de Seguridad me explican que el acceso está cerrado porque hay huelga. - ¿Y da instrucciones el Rector de mantenerlo cerrado? - Bueno, da instrucciones de no abrirlo porque no hay incidentes. No es incidente, claro, que se coja a todo el profesorado y alumnado en una bolsa y se le lleve a la huelga obligatoria, porque ya se conocen el panorama, y el plantel. Luego, gran seguimiento de la huelga. Qué gran noticia. Y por supuesto, quien cierra la puerta no es el Rector, sino la banda la porra; el trabajo sucio lo hacen una docena de facinerosos que en días como hoy tienen carta blanca. El Rector se limita a que todo le pille por sorpresa, "Ah, que han cerrado el campus. Oh. Ah." Y a ordenar que se mantenga la calma. Yo ya ni le llamo, claro. Y el personal de la Universidad, bien entrenado, este día ni aparece, o va a las 11, cuando los del piquete ya empiezan a tener ganas de irse de cañas.

    Por citar al comunicado de la CGT, los que guarda las puertas cerradas, "Quieren un rebaño obediente, dócil y fácil de explotar". Y eso se consigue, y se comprueba, de esta manera.

    Pero al parecer todo esto no le ofende la dignidad, ni el gusto, ni el olfato a nadie. Qué asco de universidad. Con clérigos así de traidores a sí mismos, la ley Wert es el menor de nuestros problemas.




    _____


    El Colectivo de Profesores nos pasa esta información sobre posibles coacciones a la hora de hacer huelga:

    Manual de huelga para la empresa y el trabajador

    3. Recursos humanos. Para facilitar la labor de gestión administrativa que requerirá los descuentos salariales, algunos expertos sugieren que se cree una especie de censo en la empresa que recoja el listado de trabajadores que han secundado la huelga. En este caso también se aconseja que esta medida se pacte con los representantes de los trabajadores para que no pueda interpretarse como coacción por parte del empresario. 5. Comunicación. Los trabajadores que decidan hacer huelga no están obligados a comunicarlo a la empresa previamente. Y consecuentemente, el empresario tampoco debería preguntar a sus empleados si acudirán o no al trabajo ese día. Según alertan los despachos de abogados, este requerimiento también podría interpretarse como un intento de desincentivar la participación de los trabajadores en la huelga, lo que podría considerarse como vulneración de este derecho. 

    Muy informativo, sí. Pero de la coacción que supone cerrar el campus con piquetes, el Colectivo ni conoce ni sabe ni contesta ni critica, aplicando una oportuna ceguera selectiva. Qué falsarios.


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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 17:55. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Universidad


    Plazas en mi departamento

    jueves, 24 de octubre de 2013

    Plazas en mi departamento

    Estimados compañeros:

    Se ha publicado una convocatoria de plazas de Profesores Asociados por 
    procedimiento de urgencia para el Departamento. Os envío el enlace:

    http://moncayo.unizar.es/info/oposicionesyconcursos.nsf/pdi-urge?OpenView

    Hacen falta dos profesores para el Campus de Huesca y otros dos para Zaragoza.

    El plazo de solicitud finaliza el martes día 29 de octubre (a las 14:00 hs).

    Los puestos son los siguientes:

    -Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación (Huesca): 2 profesores 
    asociados TP6

    -Facultad de Filosofía y Letras (con docencia también la Facultad de 
    Educación): 1 profesor asociado TP6

    -Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud: 1 profesor asociado TP3

    Es muy importante que podamos conseguir candidatos para estas plazas.

    Os ruego que deis difusión a esta convocatoria en la medida de vuestras 
    posibilidades.


    El director del Departamento de Filología Inglesa y Alemana.

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 17:56. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Departamento


    Reading Hilary Mantel

    jueves, 24 de octubre de 2013

    Reading Hilary Mantel

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 17:57. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes




    On Narrative and Ritual

    viernes, 25 de octubre de 2013

    On Narrative And Ritual

    An interesting double lecture or conversation between Richard Sennett and Rowan Williams. Highly relevant for a discussion of the theatricality of daily life, and the narrative structuring of personal and collective selves.

    http://vanityfea.blogspot.com.es/2013/10/on-narrative-and-ritual.html

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    Segre Lecture - How Did the Universe Begin?

    viernes, 25 de octubre de 2013

    Segre Lecture: How Did The Universe Begin?




    Andrew Lange nos habla, desde la física, de las leyes que ordenan y generan el universo. En el minuto 30 se detecta alguna coincidencia de vocabulario con la versión del Big Bang—evolucionismo cristiano—que nos narra Abraham Cowley en Davideis, un poema épico escrito en la década de 1640. Este es un pasaje sobre la creación del cosmos, la música de las esferas y el orden en el universo.

     

    Tell me, O Muse (for thou or none canst tell
    The mystic powers that in blest numbers dwell,
    Thou their great nature knowst, nor is it fit
    This noblest gem of thine own crown to omit),
    Tell me from whence these heavenly charms arise;
    Teach the dull world t'admire what they despise.
         As first a various unformed hint we find
    Rise in some godlike poet's fertile mind,
    Till all the parts and words their places take,
    And with just marches verse and music make,
    Such was God's poem, this world's new essay;
    So wild and rude in its first draught it lay;
    Th' ungoverned parts no correspondence knew,
    And artless war from thwarting motions grew;
    Till they to number and fixed rules were brought
    By the eternal mind's poetic thought.
    Water and air he for the tenor chose,
    Earth made the base, the treble flame arose;
    To th' active moon a quick brisk stroke he gave,
    To Saturn's string a touch more soft and grave.
    The motions straight and round and swift and slow
    And short and long were mixed and woven so,
    Did in such artful figures smoothly fall,
    As made this decent measured dance of all.
    And this is music: sounds that charm our ears
    Are but one dressing that rich science wears.
    Though no man hear't, though no man it rehearse,
    Yet will there still be music in my verse.

    Quizá conozca este pasaje el físico, y de ahí su uso de los términos "bass" y "treble", y la analogía musical. Si no, se trata de una coincidencia, digamos, natural. Y sumo este pasaje de Cowley a mi colección de nociones protoevolucionistas.



    El orden natural y la complejidad: Paley, Lamarck, Vico, y el Génesis 

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 18:02. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Evolución


    Onlimí

    viernes, 25 de octubre de 2013

    Onlimí

    "Only you, and you alone..." Vaya, resulta que en las páginas de la Wikipedia de "Filología Inglesa" o "Grado de Estudios Ingleses", que se reconducen una a otra, soy el único profesor, tícher o autor citado. No exactamente yo, pero sí mi bibliografía de Filología.

    No me dejen tan solo, por favor, que somos miles de profesores creo en España nada más.  Miren que me lo voy a creer, que ya saben que tengo tendencia —sobre todo cuando me tientan.

    También puedo añadir que, desde un punto de vista más cosmológico, estamos exactamente en el centro del universo observable.

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    Chica y barcas

    lunes, 21 de octubre de 2013

    Chica y barcas

    Chica y barcas by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
    Chica y barcas, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 11:58. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Democracy, Solidarity, and the European Crisis

    lunes, 21 de octubre de 2013

    Democracy, Solidarity, and the European Crisis





    Una conferencia de Habermas sobre "Democracy, Solidarity and the European Crisis", o el futuro de la democracia en la Unión Europea. Habermas no está en condiciones de dar conferencias con esa respiración; es mejor leer el texto aquí.

    Como crítica rápida, diré que Habermas se centra sólo en los problemas internos a Europa, grandes ciertamente—pero que las cuestiones auténticamente cruciales en relación a democracia, solidaridad y crisis se juegan no dentro de Europa, sino entre Europa y sus fronteras exteriores, especialmente las del sur y el este. Y de eso no dice nada Habermas. La receta interna de Habermas (auténtica solidaridad y resultados económicamente negativos a corto plazo, en aras de una mejora global a largo plazo) podría aplicarse a las relaciones entre Europa y sus otros—pero de hecho no creo que se apliquen ni siquiera dentro de Europa.

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 11:59. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Política


    The Hours - Soundtrack

    Lunes, 21 de octubre de 2013

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 12:01. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Música


    Gérard Genette

    martes, 22 de octubre de 2013

    Gérard Genette

    Gérard Genette, que aún vive, y escribe, es uno de los clásicos del estructuralismo francés, y a mí como a muchos otros nos contagió el virus del análisis de la narración hace como treinta años. Junto con Propp, Todorov, Barthes, y otros que por entonces reinaban en los estudios literarios. A mí me sirvió de mucha ayuda a la hora de hacerme con un método de análisis de las narraciones y como modelo de investigación conceptual en literatura. Genette era capaz de ver forma allí donde otros sólo veían contenido difuso; leerlo era un ejercicio de agudización de la percepción, y una clarificación de ideas. Y yo como otros empezamos a escribir ensayos de análisis estructural del relato en la línea de Genette, intentando ser como él. Sin conseguirlo, claro, porque su estilo desenfadado y elegante a la vez aún era más difícil de imitar que sus razonamientos conceptuales. Luego en muchas cosas surgen puntos de desacuerdo con Genette, pero a cambio descubres sus curiosas memorias o autobiografías fragmentarias en forma de diccionario, Bardadrac y Codicille. Y las recomiendas, y te prometes volver a leer algo de Genette a la primera ocasión que tengas.  Esta bibliografía suya, y mía, la he encontrado en Scribd:

    Genette.G by Myself

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    Local Architecture and a Smile

    martes, 22 de octubre de 2013

    Local Architecture and a Smile

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 13:11. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes




    Voladores

    miércoles, 23 de octubre de 2013

    Voladores

    Voladores by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
    Voladores, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

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    Martes, 28 de Enero de 2014 13:13. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Consilience and Retrospection

    viernes, 25 de octubre de 2013

    Consilience & Retrospection

    Acabo de subir al SSRN este artículo, Consilience and Retrospection, tras varios intentos infructuosos de publicarlo en revistas interdisciplinares de narratología. En alguna me dicen que sólo publican monográficos (o sea que interdisciplinares, pero menos); en otra que es muy bueno pero que no entra en su línea (o sea, que interdisciplinares pero menos) y en otra ni me contestan—bueno, me aseguran que ya me contestarán en un futuro indeterminado.

    Con las revistas que no son interdisciplinares ya ni pruebo, claro. Nunca me ha resultado fácil publicar, excepto cuando he estado en círculos de apoyo mutuo académico. Por algo será que la gente los busca, esos apoyos mutos.

    Así que entretanto, y mientras salga quien quiera publicarlo en papel o en tinta electrónica, aquí está el artículo, que versa sobre.... bueno, léaselo quien le interese la ciencia, la evolución, la retrospección, la teoría sobre las teorías, o Stephen Jay Gould o Edmund Wilson. No he encontrado a mucha gente interesada en esos temas en conjunto, ni siquiera por separado. Así reza el resumen:

    This paper reexamines Stephen Jay Gould's critique of E. O. Wilson's notion of consilience, going back to William Whewell's original formulation of the concept. The element of hermeneutic hindsight which inheres in the process of consilience is clarified and brought to the fore as a notion pertaining to cognitive narratology.

    Si lo quiere alguien para una revista académica, se lo regalo. El artículo se originó en un post que publiqué en tiempos en Ibercampus; su sustancia puede leeerse allí en español.


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    Jueves, 30 de Enero de 2014 10:50. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Filosofía


    El Colectivo de Profesores se retrata

    viernes, 25 de octubre de 2013

    El Colectivo de Profesores se retrata


    La Ley del Embudo cabalga de nuevo, como siempre. El autodenominado Colectivo de Profesores de la Universidad de Zaragoza apoya a los piquetes (que al parecer no existen) y condena a la Policía. Y van y les votan. ¿Quién es este Colectivo?

    El Colectivo de Profesores de la Universidad de Zaragoza nos envía este comunicado, tras los incidentes en el campus ayer con ocasión de la huelga:



    Estimados compañeros,
    tras la huelga de ayer, desde el Colectivo de
    Profesores, queremos  hacer las siguientes reflexiones y peticiones:

    1.- En primer lugar agradecer vuestra
    participación en la jornada de huelga que, en
    nuestra opinión, transcurrió de manera ordenada y
    respetuosa con todas las opciones personales.

    2.- Rechazamos enérgicamente la entrada de la Policía en el campus.

    3.- Ante las declaraciones del Delegado del
    Gobierno, que aparecen recogidas en la prensa de
    hoy viernes, en las que acusa al Vicerrector de
    Estudiantes y Empleo de "hostigar a la Policia" y
    generar problemas en vez de resolverlos y actuar
    en contra del propio  Rector, EXIGIMOS AL RECTOR
    UNA DECLARACIÓN PÚBLICA, CLARA
    Y  EXPLÍCITA  reprobando esas declaraciones y
    manifestando su apoyo decidido al vicerrector de estudiantes y empleo.


    Colectivo de Profesores
    Viernes 25 de Octubre de 2013



    O sea, que :

    —El Colectivo de profesores no ve coacción alguna en cerrar las puertas del campus a cal y canto, con piquetes insultadores y empujadores y escupidores. Si decides pasar y que te empujen y te escupan, será una "opción personal". A la hora de mirar a los piquetes, gafas de madera lleva el Colectivo. ¿Se puede ser más falsos?

    —El Colectivo sí ve mal que venga la policía a garantizar (ellos sí) que no haya agresiones, que se pueda acceder al campus y que no se agreda a quienes decidan entrar en una facultad, la de Derecho pongamos, blanco favorito de los piquetes de sindicalistas perroflautas. (Que por cierto, según la información del periódico, ninguno de los identificados por la policía era estudiante universitario).

    Pues que voten al Colectivo de Profesores, así autonombrado, los perroflautas en cuestión, y los piqueteros de la CNT. Los que opinan que hay paz cuando tienen a todo el mundo intimidado y coaccionado. Me gustaría que me pusiesen un comentario, sin más, los profesores que tengan la CARA DURA de apoyar este comunicado en público. Que se retraten, vamos. Los de mi departamento que apoyan supuestamente al Colectivo, pongamos—y así nos vamos conociendo. Son un grupo mayoritario, se supone. Muchos les deben votar. ¿Quiénes son este autoproclamado "Colectivo de Profesores"? ¿Quién los vota? La etiqueta es muy útil, pero ¿dónde está su ideario público, y su listado de componentes?

    El Rector, templando gaitas, fue ayer a mediar ante los matones que impedían la entrada a Derecho, y también sufrió insultos y empujones, hasta que dejó entrar a la Policía. Luego dijo que no pasaba nada. Aquí nunca pasa nada, aunque esté la Universidad cerrada a cal y canto con piquetes y barricadas. No tienen los rectores, claro, la previsión de dejar la entrada del campus despejada desde la madrugada, ni ven coacción en que este bloqueo se dé una y otra vez, huelga tras huelga, con su consentimiento quejoso. Y lejos de tener desavenencias con su equipo, aplican una vez sí y otra también la política de imponer una huelga a la comunidad universitaria, por el procedimiento sencillo y evidente de CERRAR EL CAMPUS, actuación simbólica y real, y cada cual que entienda.

    No se puede estar con los que empujan, y con los empujadores. Ni mediar entre ellos, porque es mediar entre los agresores y los agredidos. Mientras no elijamos a un rector que entienda esto tan elemental, y mientras sigamos votando a individuos que emiten semejantes comunicados, y teniéndolos en nuestros órganos de gobierno, seguirán pasando estas cosas.



    ____





    PS: Y pongo esto en el facebook un tanto abandonado del Colectivo de Profesores:

    Buenos días. El Colectivo pasa este mensaje con respecto a la huelga general del viernes y los incidentes causados por piquetes en el campus:

    "Estimados compañeros,
    tras la huelga de ayer, desde el Colectivo de
    Profesores, queremos hacer las siguientes reflexiones y peticiones:


    1.- En primer lugar agradecer vuestra
    participación en la jornada de huelga que, en
    nuestra opinión, transcurrió de manera ordenada y
    respetuosa con todas las opciones personales.

    2.- Rechazamos enérgicamente la entrada de la Policía en el campus.

    3.- Ante las declaraciones del Delegado del
    Gobierno, que aparecen recogidas en la prensa de
    hoy viernes, en las que acusa al Vicerrector de
    Estudiantes y Empleo de "hostigar a la Policia" y
    generar problemas en vez de resolverlos y actuar
    en contra del propio Rector, EXIGIMOS AL RECTOR
    UNA DECLARACIÓN PÚBLICA, CLARA
    Y EXPLÍCITA reprobando esas declaraciones y
    manifestando su apoyo decidido al vicerrector de estudiantes y empleo.

    Colectivo de Profesores
    Viernes 25 de Octubre de 2013"


    Y digo yo: ¿Esto, quién lo firma? ¿Quién está exigiendo esto?

    Más aún: Este comunicado ignora la presencia y actuación de piquetes coactivos y violentos. ¿Se supone que debemos ser los demás igual de "ciegos selectivos" acaso?

    ¿Se nos supone que entre un piquete que intenta coaccionar la libre participación o no en una huelga, y la policía que, llamada por el Rector, defiende el derecho a la libre circulación, hemos de elegir a los primeros?

    ¿En nombre de qué, y de quién?

    Por si a alguien no le queda claro, estoy criticando no el hacer huelga o no, sino la manera de hacerla y de imponerla a los demás. Esto no debe ser aceptable, me parece a mí, ni para el Colectivo de Profesores ni para nadie.

     


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    Viernes, 31 de Enero de 2014 11:26. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Universidad


    Los nombres autonómicos

    sábado, 26 de octubre de 2013

    Los nombres autonómicos

    Aquí hay unos interesantes gráficos sobre los nombres más usados en España durante el último siglo, por provincias. Aparte de la evolución general, llama la atención la "autonomización" de Cataluña, Galicia y el País Vasco, que gradualmente descubren que no desean llamarse como los demás españoles, sino como los catalanes, vascos o gallegos.

    Etiquetas: , , ,

    Viernes, 31 de Enero de 2014 11:27. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Política


    Onza, una isla

    sábado, 26 de octubre de 2013

    Onza, una isla

    Onza, una isla by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
    Onza, una isla, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.

    Etiquetas: ,

    Viernes, 31 de Enero de 2014 11:28. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    Aeons Before the Big Bang

    sábado, 26 de octubre de 2013

    Aeons before the Big Bang

    Una conferencia de Roger Penrose en el Centro Copérnico (2011).

    Etiquetas: , , ,



    On the nature of cosmology today

    sábado, 26 de octubre de 2013

    On the Nature of Cosmology Today

    A lecture by George F. R. Ellis (Copernicus Center lecture 2012). Against speculative cosmologies.





    Etiquetas: , ,



    Women, Gender & Language

    sábado, 26 de octubre de 2013

    Women, Gender & Language

    Una bibliografía mía que reencuentro por Scribd. Que no se diga que ya no le doy yo a las mujeres ni al género en general. Sobre todo en un contexto lingüístico.





    Y un poco más allá encuentro también esta bibligrafía sobre el género.

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    El cielo, cobertor azul

    domingo, 27 de octubre de 2013

    El cielo, cobertor azul

    Etiquetas: ,

    Viernes, 31 de Enero de 2014 11:33. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Imágenes


    50 comentarios sobre la huelga obligatoria

    domingo, 27 de octubre de 2013

    50 comentarios sobre la huelga obligatoria

    Cincuenta comentarios sobre la huelga obligatoria, antes de que se los lleve el viento. Son un documento de interés sociológico-político. Los cojo de los comentarios a esta noticia sobre los incidentes del campus central de la Universidad de Zaragoza, el viernes pasado, en el Heraldo de Aragón.  Casi todos los comentarios van en el mismo sentido, bien razonable—los que no, ya se ve de ke pie kojean. Sígase, claro, el orden inverso de lectura.


    • #50 ejeano 24/10/13 19:39 47- Luciano. Muchos. Pero hoy estamos hablando de los piquetes que no nos dejan ir a clase, que es un derecho que tenemos.
    • #49 ejeano 24/10/13 19:37 36-gentico. El banco de Santander, como los demás bancos, no cajas de ahorro dirigidas por politicastros y sindicalistas, estudia sus posibles acreditados y, una vez estudiado cada caso, le presta a quien piensa conveniente o a quien le dá la gana. Son sociedades anónimas, que ni las han puesto la Cruz Roja, ni el Ayuntamiento, ni, mucho menos aún, los sindicatos.
    • #48 miguelico 24/10/13 18:59 Edad de los detenidos y facultad en la que estudian, por favor
    • #47 Luciano 24/10/13 18:50 Si en un piquete en Zaragoza por huelga de educación hay 2 detenidos, ¿cuantos tendría que haber en un país al que sus dirigentes son los primeros que saquean?
    • #46 Zaragozano 24/10/13 18:44 Resulta curioso que en las distintas huelgas, la Facultad de Derecho es el único lugar donde hay problemas, qué sucede que esa es la única facultad que no pueden controlar los piquetes. Lo gracioso es que hablan de derechos, pero y el derecho a los demás de acudir a clase, ah no que ese hoy no rige. Lo curioso es que el Rectorado hoy ha permitido la entrada de la Policía al Campus, extraño, pero quizás así algunos aprendan. O lo que sucede es que el Rector no quiere de nuevo una lluvia de comentarios tras lo sucedido en otras huelgas y la suspensión de la inauguración del curso.
    • #45 yuer 24/10/13 18:43 #30 Luciano, tómate una tila, lo necesitas.
    • #44 solucion 24/10/13 18:26 Mañana una noticia del TRANVIA y todo olvidado... la gente se cegará y cargará contra él y ya nadie se acordará de eso...
    • #43 amparo 24/10/13 18:24 a todos esos piquetes que van tapados y con actitudes violentas , los podeis ver en la romareda por la curva sur , estos ultras no saben ni hacen otra cosa que no sea pelear y insultar al que no piensa como ellos ,pero como son jovenes no pasa nada BASTA YA DE RADICALES tanto de extrema izquierda como de extrema erecha
    • #42 Cuida-dano 24/10/13 18:13 Varias dudas que tengo: cuando los piquetes informativos marcharon del campus a la manifestación, ¿colocaron los contenedores que había derribado esparciendo la basura en su sitio y recogieron dicha basura?; cuando un piquete informativo se tapa la cara ¿por qué lo hace? ¿Es que se considera muy feo o es que lleva intención de hacer algo ilegal?
    • #41 karterror outlaw 24/10/13 18:04 la extrema izquierda escucha huelga manifestacion o protesta y ya van como locos a imponer su idea para que su pais fracase como tantas otras veces... que penoso es esto y lo mas penoso de todos es que a esta gente ya sean del sindicato o radicales de extrema izquierda que bajo mi opinion son los mismos igual de trabajadores actuen siempre tan impunemente...
    • #40 Cromwell para Universitaria 24/10/13 17:45 Universitaria, tu comentario da pena. Y yo no pago mis impuestos para que indigentes morales como tú estudiéis y luego uséis ese conocimiento contra los ciudadanos.
    • #39 luis jiménez jiménez 24/10/13 17:34 Siento repugnancia por todos estos demócratas de pacotilla que para reivindicar sus derechos pisotean los derechos ajenos. ¿A qué jugáis: a liberales progres de izquierda?. Vosotros sólo conocéis la DEMOCRACIA porque existe en el diccionario, pero no tenéis ni idea de su contenido. Ejerced vuestros derechos y dejad que los demás ejerzan los suyos.
    • #38 Eva 24/10/13 17:10 En las huelgas como siempre, coacción para que la secundes, y luego a presumir de éxito de participación.La huelga es un derecho constitucional, no secundarla y trabajar también. Ley de huelga YA.
    • #37 gentico 24/10/13 17:05 Luciano golpe de estado es hacer piquetes de fuerza, para impedir que otras personas tengan opiniones distintas. Donde queda la "DEMOCRACIA", SI ES QUE SABEIS LO QUE ES ESO,  en este país, ni hay democracia ni se conoce, y menos con personas que, como vosotros, sólo es democracia lo que vosotros opináis, cualquier razón en contra es facha o retrógrado o inculto. Que pena de país. ESO SI EH¡¡¡ eL BANCO DE SANTANDER EL 77% MÁS DE BENEFICIO Y NI UN DURO A CRÉDITOS, y los intereses por las nubes (HIPÔTECAS CON SUELO ), SINDICATOS CHORIZOS, POLITICOS CHORIZOS DE IZDAS Y DCHAS, PERO CONTRA ESO NO HAY MANIFESTACIÓN,  En mi opinión, si todo el dinero que se han llevado y llevan, el exceso de administración, los sindicatos y el USUREISMO bancario,  NO HABRÍA QUE HACER NINGUN RECORTE.
    • #36 ...y lo que falta 24/10/13 17:03 #19 Ascaso: Yo hablo de regular el ejercicio de ese derecho, para no pasar por encima de los del resto de ciudadanos (quizás eso te fastidie un poco, pero derechos tenemos todos). #20 Quercus: Está claro que lo tuyo tampoco es un arcano del tarot 22 Robespierre: Me parece que tú hablas de oidas y no tienes realmente mucho conocimiento del asunto. 25 esquiroles: Por favor, no queremos salvadores. Al menos no tú. Descansa. 30 Luciano: Léete al 32 y luego estudia para formarte y conocer, al menos, la Historia. Al resto, olé.
    • #35 Robespierre 24/10/13 16:48 Para #32 Estudiante. Tú si que tienes cortas miras de lo que es la democracia. Tenemos los gobernantes que nos merecemos con gente que entiendes que la toma de decisiones del pueblo se reduce a depositar un voto cada cuatro años. Existen otras vias de participación como los referendums, las iniciativas legislativas populares sin cortapisas... Por último, recordarte que con la aplicación de la ley electoral los diputados del PSOE y PP salían en las elecciones generales de 2008 a 55.000 votos. Mientras que para que saliera un diputado de IU era necesario 500.000 votos, diez veces más apoyo popular. Así es el sistema electoral es injusto, el PP no tiene la soberanía nacional, tiene un tercio del apoyo de los ciudadanos con derecho a voto. Esa es la realidad de una democracia defectuosa que además se pliega a decisiones exteriores de Troikas y FMI y no a lo que la gente dice en la calle, iniciativas legislativas populares o referendms.
    • #34 Luciano 24/10/13 16:36 #32estudiante ¿Quién te ha dicho que yo no voté al PP?. Pero repito: "golpe de estado electoral" al incumplir todo el programa político por el que fue votado.
    • #33 pil 24/10/13 16:33 Para "dasrisa,"  mucha risa das con tu comentario sobre el comentario de Edu, pensabas lo contrario pero le has dado la razon totalmente . y creo que verdaderamente la tiene.
    • #32 estudiante 24/10/13 16:20 Luciano, tu que entiendes por golpe de Estado? q la mayoría voten a un partido y que a ti no te gusta? eso SÍ QUE ES FASCISMO (bueno, o comunismo, q ya está bien de que esta palabra sea un eufemismo en nuestra sociedad)
    • #31 dasrisa 24/10/13 16:18 #28 edu_zgz Vas a ser tú quién decida cuando uno puede o no puede ir a clase??. La gente es libre de ir a clase cuando le de la gana, incluido un día de huelga. Pues nada, mañana pasa lista en clase y apunta los que falten, si así eres feliz...
    • #30 Luciano 24/10/13 16:10 Aquí parece que todo es delito, excepto que un Gobierno de un "golpe de estado electoral" incumpliendo su programa político además de actuar sólo en su propio beneficio y en contra de la gente.
    • #29 edu_zgz 24/10/13 16:08 sólo espero que esos que querían entrar hoy a derecho pongan el mismo ahínco los viernes por la mañana tras haber salido de fiesta la noche anterior,ya que conozco a varios de los que han tratado de entrar y no es la primera vez que no van a clase un viernes por trasnochar. y a los detenidos no se les ha identificado y soltado, se les ha llevado a un juzgado por desobediencia,resistencia y desorden público
    • #28 Lya 24/10/13 15:53 @estudiante ¿Qué no ha habido ningún porrazo? Eso será que no lo has visto, porque te puedo asegurar que los ha habido, y con bastante mano suelta. No voy a decir que se pueda hablar de brutalidad porque no la ha habido, pero ¿porrazos? eso sin duda alguna.
    • #27 nesko 24/10/13 15:44 Estos del cnt y del pce y niñatos que había de extrema izquierda se pensaban que iban a respaldarles la gente normal y que si que fue de verdad a protestar por la educacion.os habeis quedado con el culo al aire chavalotes.
    • #26 Universitaria 24/10/13 15:30 Yo cuando pago la matrícula se incluyen las clases a las que hoy no se me ha permitido ir porque un conjunto de indeseables se encontraban en la puerta de la facultad amenazando. Por fin este año se ha dejado entrar al campus a la policía y no se ha producido ninguna desgracia.
    • #25 esquiroles 24/10/13 15:08 #7 y tú eres un atentado a la inteligencia. Tengo que hacer huelga, dejar de cobrar y todo para pedir por tí y tus hijos, en fin.
    • #24 Maria 24/10/13 15:00 Derecho a ir a trabajar en dia de huelga? En la anterior huelga general los companeros y compañeras de CCOO distribuian entre sus acolitos unas instrucciones por escrito, una de las cuales decia que no existe el derecho a or a trabajar.
    • #23 Boletus 24/10/13 14:59 Que digan si estos detenidos eran estudiantes o unos antisistema q vienen a dar mal, como muchas veces pasan en las manifas.
    • #22 Robespierre 24/10/13 14:56 El debate de la violencia es complicado. En ningún medio aparece mencionada la violencia de profesores que ponen examen o la práctica más importante el día de la Huelga para coaccionar a sus alumnos (tras varias huelgas podría escribir un libro sobre esta práctica), que algunos trabajadores son despedidos o marcados como revoltosos, en un colegio concertado se puede estar de acuerdo con la Huelga y no hacerla por miedo al despido (tengo compañeros en esta situación), o por ejemplo, que las identificaciones de la policía son bastante arbitrarias y buscan la sanción al colectivo (he visto sanciones a gente que no había hecho absolutamente nada)
    • #21 fernando 24/10/13 14:50 Piquetes informativos cuando la última huelga general : " Mira tío te informo de que si no cierras tu tienda te puedes encontrar la cerradura llena de silicona y el escaparate hecho una M" .... puedes hacer huelga que no te quita nadie el DERECHO y al decirles que exactamente es un derecho NO UNA OBLIGACION, que la obligación la tengo al mediodía con 5 en la mesa, la respuesta fue: ESTAS INFORMADO, ALLA TU, por suerte no volvieron otra vez ( 6 contra 1 pues no tengo empleados )
    • #20 Quercus 24/10/13 14:49 Vaya comentaristas! Ya se nota de ke pié cojean.
    • #19 Ascaso 24/10/13 14:27 Para el comentario nº 1, en la empresa privada no todo el que quiere hacer huelga la puede hacer, existe el piquete informativo de la patronal, que te "aconseja" que no la hagas, esta el dueño que pregunta dos días antes quién la va a hacer, esta el empresario que te recuerda que tu contrato acaba en el mes de marzo.......Por eso todos los que hablan de ley de huelga me temo que lo que dicen es endurecer la posibilidad de poderla hacer.
    • #18 Javier 24/10/13 13:29 "No comenzarán la manifestación hasta que sean liberados"   JAJAJAJAJA.   Menuda amenaza a las autoridades públicas.  ¡Ojo! Que si nos ponemos duros igual hasta volvemos a clase!   Ains..que país.
    • #17 Ccarlos 24/10/13 13:27 Estos dos detenidos reclaman para si la libertad que niegan a los demás .Han sido detenidos por no dejar ejercer a los demás el elemental derecho humano a la libre circulación,impidiendo que la gente que quisiera pudiera entrar al campus a estudiar ,trabajar o a pasear.
    • #16 estudiante 24/10/13 13:25 Mi más sincero agradecimiento a la policía nacional, que ha actuado de forma ejemplar, no ha pegado ni un porrazo. Luego oiremos que ha habido brutalidad policial y más parafernalia perroflautica, sobre todo porque uno de los dos detenidos ha intentado teatralizar lo que no era, cuando se ha puesto a gritar como un cobarde. Se ve que las clases del sindicato de la CEJA son buenas, porque menudo actor estaba hecho. Lo único que lamento es que sea la primera vez en las últimas cinco huelgas que a la policía se le deja hacer su trabajo. Tome nota señor rector, esto Sí.
    • #15 e 24/10/13 13:22 Pues está fácil. No se sueltan, de momento, y no habrá manifestaciones. Perfecto.
    • #14 Clussoe 24/10/13 13:14 Se puede estar más o menos de cuerdo con la protesta sobre la educación pero, en lo que desde luego no comparto ni apoyo es que se obligue a la gente, venga esta obligación de donde venga,  a hacer lo que unos de forma violenta restrinjan algún derecho que asisten a cualquier persona en un estado democrático. Así que me parece lógico que los integrantes de ese piquete represivo hayan sido detenidos.
    • #13 A la hogera 24/10/13 13:05 Esto en alemania no pasaría (porque no hemos empezado las clases)! Dais asco y mala gana, a trabajar
    • #12 Demócrata 24/10/13 13:03 Me apuesto lo que sea, a que estos 2 no eran estudiantes universitarios. Serán mas bien, de los que se apuntan a un bombardeo, siempre que sea reventar la ley.
    • #11 Sorprendido 24/10/13 12:44 Una cosa que no entiendo de este equipo de gobierno de la Universidad. ¿Por qué se permite la entrada por puertas laterales del campus (incluso con vigilantes de seguridad privada) y no se permite que esté abierta la puerta principal? ¿Qué cachondeo es éste?
    • #10 yomisma 24/10/13 12:35 Pero es que nadie tiene bien presente en su mente que la huelga es un DERECHO, como también es un DERECHO el ir a trabajar?? Una huelga no debe ser forzada ni obligada por los piquetes, porque sino menuda mier... de democracia! Los piquetes han de ser informativos, me parece fenomenal, pero tanto que hablamos de educación, tengamos en cuenta que el adjetivo INFORMATIVO no incluye la acepción "PEGAR EMPUJONES Y HOSTIAS HASTA CONVENCER AL PERSONAL DE QUE HAGA HUELGA".
    • #9 yo 24/10/13 12:34 Pues muy mal se han tenido que poner las cosas para que desde Rectorado hayan avisado a la policía
    • #8 Ccarlos 24/10/13 12:10 Estos detenidos reclaman para si la libertad que ellos impiden ejercer a los que por los motivos que sean quieren entrar en el campus.Los piquetes son un atentado contra la libertad de circulación de toda persona.
    • #7 Ccarlos 24/10/13 12:10 Estos detenidos reclaman para si la libertad que ellos impiden ejercer a los que por los motivos que sean quieren entrar en el campus.Los piquetes son un atentado contra la libertad de circulación de toda persona.
    • #6 coral 24/10/13 12:06 Por favor que nos digan si esos "piquetes informativos" tenían algo que ver con la comunidad de estudiantes
    • #5 erut 24/10/13 12:06 Que triste tener que recurrir a la violencia para lograr mayor seguimiento...
    • #4 pefecto 24/10/13 11:50 jaajjajajajjajaajjaj
    • #3 pjpiyei 24/10/13 11:48 Siempre igual, una cosa es estar a favor de la huelga y querer hacerla y otra obligar a que todo el mundo opine como tu. Flaco favor nos hacen estos piquetes que impiden la libertad de otros.
    • #2 marioelfuncionario 24/10/13 11:46 M ¿ALEGRO.
    • #1 Pedro 24/10/13 11:46 ¿Tanto cuesta hacer una ley de huelga, en la que quien quiera hacer huelga la haga y, quien no, pueda ir a trabajar en libertad?



    Y esto pasa cada vez que hay huelga, y el Rectorado permite que "alguien" cierre el campus. Claro que sólo se lo permite a algunos, una vez sí y otra también, a los anarquistas, sindicalistas comunistas, e independentistas de estrella roja. Los algunos otros, es que no le cierran el campus a nadie. Y a esta minoría de matones, ¿por qué hay que aguantarlos, por orden de la autoridad académica?




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    Viernes, 31 de Enero de 2014 11:35. José Ángel García Landa Enlace permanente. Universidad






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