Aquí siguiéndome la pista, e intentando en vano alcanzarme, voy sacando lista de todas las cosas mías que encuentro repuestas o remediadas en la Red. En Scribd he encontrado una mina de cosas mías recopiadas o compartidas. Por ejemplo esta bibliografía sobre retórica—una de varias que hay, la más generalista, en mi Bibliografía de Teoría Literaria, Crítica y Filología.
Otro de mis archivos .doc de la bibliografía, que diversas personas han convertido a PDF, y colgado en Scribd. Llevo localizadas varias decenas, pero la cosa sigue creciendo sin duda, porque la bibliografía tiene más de 5,000 archivos que andan multiplicándose por el mundo. Words, words, words—y PDFs.
April 11, 2014. Submission deadline. May 9, 2014. Notification of acceptance. May 30, 2014. Final versions due. July 23-26, 2014. CogSci 2014. July 27-31, 2014. AAAI-14. July 26-31, 2014. CNS 2014. July 31 - August 2, 2014. Workshop in Quebec City.
Narratives are ubiquitous in human experience. We use them to communicate, convince, explain, and entertain. As far as we know, every society in the world has narratives, which suggests they are rooted in our psychology and serve an important cognitive function. It is becoming increasingly clear that to truly understand and explain human intelligence, beliefs, and behaviors, we will have to understand why and to what extent narrative is universal and explain (or explain away) the function it serves. The aim of this workshop series is to address key questions that advance our understanding of narrative at multiple levels: from the psychological and cognitive impact of narratives to our ability to model narrative responses computationally.
Special Focus: Neuroscience
This inter-disciplinary workshop will be an appropriate venue for papers addressing fundamental topics and questions regarding narrative. The workshop will be held in association with the following meetings:
- The 36th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society - The 28th Conference on Artificial Intelligence - The 23rd Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting
The workshop will have a special focus on the neuroscience of narrative. Papers should be relevant to issues fundamental to the computational modeling and scientific understanding of narrative; we especially welcome papers relevant to the neuroscientific and cognitive aspects of narrative. Regardless of its focus, reported work should provide some sort of insight of use to computational modeling of narratives. Discussing technological applications or motivations is not prohibited, but is not required. We accept both finished research and more tentative exploratory work.
Illustrative Topics and Questions - What are the neural correlates of narrative or narrative processing? - How can we study narrative from a neuroscientific or cognitive point of view? - Can narrative be subsumed by current models of higher-level cognition, or does it require new approaches? - How do narratives mediate our cognitive experiences, or affect our cognitive abilities? - How are narratives indexed and retrieved? Is there a universal scheme for encoding episodic information? - What comprises the set of possible narrative arcs? Is there such a set? How many possible story lines are there? - Is narrative structure universal, or are there systematic differences in narratives from different cultures? - What makes narrative different from a list of events or facts? What is special that makes something a narrative? - What are the details of the relationship between narrative and common sense? - What shared resources are required for the computational study of narrative? What should a “Story Bank” contain? - What shared resources are available, or how can already-extant resources be adapted to the study of narrative? - What are appropriate formal or computational representations for narrative? - How should we evaluate computational and formal models of narrative?
Organizers: - Mark A. Finlayson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A.) - Jan Christoph Meister (Universitaet Hamburg, Germany) - Emile Bruneau (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A.)
Centre de recherches sur les arts et le langage (CNRS/EHESS)
Séminaire « Recherches contemporaines en narratologie »
Olivier Caïra (IUT Evry et EHESS), Claude Calame (EHESS), Sabine Chalvon (EHESS), Annick Louis (Université de Reims),
Simone Morgagni (EHESS/CNRS et Università di Bologna), John Pier (Université de Tours et CRAL), Philippe Roussin (CNRS et Maison française d’Oxford)
Programme de l'année universitaire 2013-2014
La narrativité sera au cœur des travaux et des discussions du séminaire au cours de l’année 2013-2014. La notion s’est imposée au cours des années récentes comme l’une des plus importantes pour l’évolution des recherches en narratologie, recherches qui continuent d’élargir la portée des investigations et de diversifier les objets d’analyses. On s’efforcera de distinguer entre les différentes acceptions du concept et d’évaluer les inflexions qu’il introduit dans le domaine de l’analyse du récit et du discours au sens large. Définie en termes de propriété et de gradation, la narrativité permet de marquer et d’apprécier les qualités formelles et contextuelles qui distinguent les récits des autres formes, verbales ou non, de représentation culturelle.
Narrativity will be at the heart of the lectures and discussions of the seminar during the 2013-2014 academic year. The notion has become one of vital importance in recent years as research in narratology has continued to evolve, broadening the scope of its investigation and diversifying the objects of its analysis. The various understandings of the concept will identified and an attempt will be made to explore the implications it has for the analysis of narrative and of discourse at large. Defined in terms of both property and gradation, narrativity makes it possible to bring out and evaluate the formal and contextual qualities of a discourse that distinguish narratives from other forms of cultural representation, verbal or otherwise.
Mardi 19 novembre 2013
John Pier (Université de Tours et CRAL)
« Les enjeux de la narrativité »
Mardi 3 décembre 2013
Olivier Caïra (IUT Evry et EHESS)
« Des géométries abstraites aux story-games :
diégétiser et narrativiser les jeux de société »
Mardi 21 janvier 2014
Françoise Revaz (Université de Fribourg)
« La narrativité au quotidien : l’exemple des entretiens médicaux »
Mardi 4 février 2014
Raphaël Baroni (Université de Lausanne)
« Comment la transmédialité peut-elle nous aider à comprendre la narrativité ? »
Mardi 4 mars 2014
Marie-Laure Ryan (Belvue, Colorado)
« Le récit et ses prototypes, ou comment définir la narrativité »
Mardi 18 mars 2014
Jean-Michel Adam (Université de Lausanne)
« Narrativité et généricité des textes : l’exemple des Petits poèmes en prose de Baudelaire »
Mardi 1er avril 2014
Christian Hauer (Université de Lille 3)
« De la narrativité dans les arts, dont la musique : un défi pour la narratologie ? »
Mardi 29 avril 2014
Claude Calame (EHESS)
« De la narratologie structurale à la pragmatique de l’énonciation :
la narrativité entre mythe et rituel (grecs) »
Mardi 6 mai 2014
Anne Hénault (Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3)
« Paul Ricœur, lecteur d’A. J. Greimas : quelles conceptions de la narrativité ? »
Mardi 20 mai 2014
Françoise Lavocat (Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3)
« La métalepse efface-t-elle les frontières de la fiction ? »
Mardi 3 juin 2014
Anne Duprat (Université d’Amiens)
« Narrativité/fictionnalité : le cas du récit de voyage »
En el Seminario de Investigaciones Culturales "Tropelías" (SIC) [sic], de nuestra Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, asisto ayer a la conferencia de Robert Caner (Universidad de Barcelona) sobre “El decir griego y el sentido de la mímesis según Martínez Marzoa."
No sabía que Martínez Marzoa era tan joven cuando escribió su manual de historia de la filosofía—casi igual de joven que yo cuando yo me lo leía hace treinta y tantos años. Bien, pues recientemente vuelve a publicar mucho, entre otras cosas este libro sobre El decir griego que comenta Caner—una reflexión sobre la mímesis platónica, esencialmente.
Y aparece la mímesis, o bien en la versión de Platón, o en la de Marzoa, o en la de Caner, o en las ideas que a mí se me occurren mientras lo oigo—que todos somos eslabones magnetizados al fin— como una paradójica actividad. La mímesis o más bien la reflexión sobre ella. La experiencia griega de la mímesis, y del pensamiento sobre ella, está unida a la esencia de la cosa: la cosa como puro aparecer ella misma, mostrarse (la aletheia aquella), revelar su esencia y definirse como lo que es. Y la mímesis a la vez manifiesta esa esencia y la problematiza. Al igual que la teoría de Platón a la vez centra la esencia de la cosa y la extrae fuera de sí—a ese curioso mundo de las Ideas.
Me viene a la cabeza la crítica de Derrida a la noción platónica de escritura, tan ambivalente—a la vez condenando la escritura por escrito, y escribiéndola en diálogos, que quieren volver a la oralidad, pero una oralidad de nueva dimensión. Algo parecido sucede con el ser de la cosa en este decir griego sobre la mímesis.
Resulta que el decir griego, el decir filosófico, siendo a la vez otro mito (mito de la razón) desmitifica el mito tradicional (y me venían a la mente los comentarios desmitificadores de Platón, en el Fedro creo que era, sobre la interpretación alegórica de los mitos). El griego vive dividido entre la manifestación de la cosa en su esencia, y la búsqueda de los últimos porqués de las cosas, una búsqueda que no puede sino disolver la cosa en las condiciones de su presencia. La metafísica será ese estudio de las condiciones de la presencia, y es en cierto sentido una empresa contradictoria; la cosa, estudiada en las condiciones de su aparición o de su ser, deja de ser ella misma, y se disuelve en una gramática de posibilidades y de condiciones de posibilidad, de aparición. Buscando la esencia de la presencia, la cosa se esfuma, y aparece la presencia en sí com objeto de pensamiento—el pensamiento ante sí mismo reflejado al infinito.
Es una relación un tanto paradójica, la del conocimiento de las cosas, que las saca de sí mismas, y las convierte en objetos de una disciplina que a la vez las explica y las disuelve en meras aparariencias insustanciales. Es una nueva caída del paraíso, el conocimiento filosófico, y también nos embarca en una serie infinita de reflexiones cuando al objeto estudiado le añadimos el estudio o discurso sobre el objeto, y las condiciones de éste asimismo, como nuevo objeto para la reflexión.
Termina Caner con una apología del arte conceptual como análogo a la reflexión filosófica, una reflexión sobre las condiciones de aparición del arte y así también sobre su esencia. Y por el camino también pasamos por los románticos alemanes, los Schlegel, teorizadores del arte reflexivo—el arte que medita sobre las propias condiciones de la representación.
Me quedo con esa sugerencia de la paradoja inherente a la mímesis: imitación del objeto que revela su esencia precisamente no coincidiendo con el objeto, sacándolo fuera de sí—una circulación necesaria para el pensamiento al parecer, pues la pura presencia del objeto es más bien la fase edénica o infantil del pensamiento. La reflexión desilusionante la desmitifica, pero claro, sólo en un estadio mítico pueden darse las condiciones de aparición de la cosa como prístina o divina. De eso también escribieron los metafísicos ingleses, Traherne, Vaughan, o el propio Marvell, cuando su segador critica las estatuas de los dioses en los jardines—
Their statues polished by some ancient hand, May to adorn the gardens stand; But, howsoe’er the figures do excel, The Gods themselves with us do dwell.
Aunque aún no ha acabado, 2013, o no ha acabado aún con nosotros, me piden la memoria de actividades de este año—al menos las relevantes para un grupo de investigación en el que me he metido sobre "Hermenéutica y Antropología Fenomenológica." Mis actividades hermenéutico-antropológico-fenomenológicas de este año creo que estas son, salgo a una por mes y me falta diciembre:
"The Story behind any Story: Evolution, Historicity and Narrative Mapping." Conferencia plenaria, por invitación, en el III Congreso de la Red Europea de Narratología, 3rd ENN Conference, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales / Université Internationale de Paris, 28-30 marzo 2013.
Video en el canal del CRAL (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris):
_____. "ENN: The Story behind any Story: Evolution, Historicity, and Narrative Mapping." YouTube (CRAL – Centre de Recherches sur l'Art et le Langage) 5 July 2013.*
José Angel García Landa. "Retroperspectiva y perspicacia: El emergentismo crítico de Polibio a Wilde." In Otium cum dignitate: Estudios en homenaje al profesor José Javier Iso Echegoyen. Ed. J. A. Beltrán, A. Encuentra, G. Fontana, A. I. Magallón, R. Mª Marina. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza, 2013. 677-88.*
_____. "Retroprospecciones intertextuales: A propósito de Pierre Bayard y el plagio por anticipado (Intertextual Retroprospections: On Pierre Bayard and Anticipatory Plagiarism)." Social Science Research Network 24 July 2013.*
José Angel García Landa. "Notas sobre el dialogismo de Mijail Bajtin en "El problema del texto en la lingüística, la filología y las ciencias humanas" (Annotations on Mikhail Bakhtin's Dialogism in "The Problem of the Text in Linguistics, Philology, and the Human Sciences") Social Science Research Network 1 marzo 2013.*
Aparecerá también a finales de 2013 en el volumen Semiosphere of Narratology: A Polylogue of Languages and Cultures. Editado por Svetlana Bozrikova y Ludmila Tataru. Balashov (Rusia), 2013 (en prensa).
José Angel García Landa. "Consilience and Retrospection." Social Science Research Network 24 Oct. 2013.*
MÁS COSAS SALEN EN DICIEMBRE... —Y bueno, ahora que caigo tengo todavía varias más, unas notas y comentarios sobre Schleiermacher y Gadamer.... pero Académicamente Hablando, no cuentan para nada, y en realidad qué más darán estas memorias anuales si no se las mira nadie.
A saber por qué sigo usando este microblog, si existe Twitter. Por llevarle la contraria a Occam, será, y multiplicar las entidades. No es filosofía todo lo que hacemos. Sea como sea, hoy he hecho, por curiosidad, un viaje al principio de mi Twitter, en el que respondo al nombre de JoseAngelGLanda. Y existe, aunque no está accesiblemente archivado, y menos que lo estará cuando lleve unos años twitteando, si dura tanto Twitter, o si duro tanto yo. Igual me hago mi propio archivo también, por años, aunque no sé para qué, si ya hay copia de seguridad en la NSA y en el CSI. A lo que voy es que, increíblemente, llevo twitteando a ritmo continuo más de un año, y creía que llevaba poco más de un mes. Sic transit vita.
JoseAngel: Por lo que parece (no tengo datos) hay poquísimos estudiantes en nuestro máster de estudios textuales y culturales. ¿Agonizando? Lástima sería, pero es que compite con el máster OFICIAL de verdad.
Últimamente sólo hay que meter el brazo en la red a ver qué encuentras, y sacas alguna versión reconvertida o pirateada o multiplicada de tus propias publicaciones, subida por algún servicial robot, o un sufrido y pálido humano, a algún repositorio de China o de Rusia. En este caso los gráficos no han pasado bien la conversión. Mejor se ven en esta revista electrónica, que es de donde habrá venido el artículo:
Hay que decir que el razonamiento escéptico con las subáreas y los subareantes no convenció nada al tribunal, partidario decididamente de oposiciones basadas en una oposición estricta y excluyente entre lingüistas y literatos. Digo que no los convenció, suponiendo que se leyesen algo de esto, que mucha prisa se tenían que haber dado. Más bien estaba la cosa ya bastante decidida de antemano.
Tiene una companion piece, si les interesa, titulada:
Tampoco agradó. Menos agradó todavía mi defensa de mi candidatura, en la que se me acusó de jactarme demasiado de mis méritos. Y eso que el tribunal admitió que tenía muchos.... y que estábamos en la parte de la oposición vulgarmente llamada autobombo, en la que debería haber obtenido yo algún éxito. Pues hasta eso estaba de más. Es que cuando hay oposición, es difícil sacarla, o claramente imposible, y los méritos acumulados se vuelven irrelevantes. Cuando no la hay, en cambio, los méritos se vuelven (también) irrelevantes. In my experience.
De momento no me cobran por ella, pero "podrían empezar a cobrarme." En fin, hasta ahora Google me sale barato, en relación calidad/precio.
Y un aviso del mañana contra estas cosas, contra el síndrome TMI (Too Much Information), y contra el Colossus GoogleBot,straddling the world— a cargo de Dave Eggers y Margaret Atwood. "What happens to us if we must be 'on' all the time? Then we’re in the twenty-four-hour glare of the supervised prison. To live entirely in public is a form of solitary confinement."
Mi artículo Hierarchically Minded: Levels of Intentionality and Mind Reading ha sido distribuido en una revista de antropología delSocial Science Research Network, Psychological Anthropology eJournal, y ahora figura en esta lista de top ten de "Antropología cognitiva".
Mi bibiografía sobre mujeres y literatura, y mujeres en la literatura, procedente de... mi bibiografía. Donde hay otras listas complementarias: sobre mujeres novelistas, personajes femeninos, estudios de mujeres, crítica feminista, etc. Vamos, que cualquier día me convierto en una referencia o incluso una autoridad en lo que se refiere a mujeres.
From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.
Lyly, John (?1554-1606), the grandson of William *Lily. He was educated possibly at the King's School, Canterbury, then at Magdalen College, Oxford. He studied also at Cambridge. He was MP successively for Hindon, Aylesbury, and Appleby (1589-1601), and supported the cause of the bishops in the *Martin Marprelate controversy in a satirical pamphlet, *Pappe with an Hatchet (1589). The first part of his *Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit appeared in 1578, and the second part, Euphues and His England, in 1580. Its peculiar style came to be known as 'Euphuism'. Among Lyly's plays, all of which were written for performance by boy actors to courtly audiences, are Alexander, Campaspe and Diogenes (see under Campaspe, its later title); Sapho and Phao (1584); Endimion (1591); Midas (1592), Mother Bombie (1594, see under Bumby). The attractive songs in the plays, including such well-known lyrics as 'Cupid and my Campaspe played', were first printed in Blount's collected edition of 1632; it is doubtful to what extent theyh are the work of Lyly. Although Euphues was Lyly's most popular and influential work in the Elizabethan period, his plays are now admired for their flexible use of dramatic prose and the elegant patterning of their construction. R. W. Bond edited Lyly's works in 1902, and there is a good study of him by G. K. Hunter, John Lyly: The Humanist as Courtier (1962).
Peele, George (1556-96), the son of James Peele, clerk of Christ's Hospital and author of city pageants and books on accountancy. He was educated at *Christ's Hospital, Broadgates Hall (Pembroke College), and Christ Church, Oxford. From about 1581 he was mainly resident in London, and puruing an active and varied literary career. He was an associate of many other writers of the period, such as Thomas *Watson and Robert *Greene. His works fall into three main categories: plays, pageants, and 'gratulatory' and miscellaneous verse. His surviving plays are *The Araygnement of Paris (1585), Edward I (1593), *The Battle of Alcazar (1594); *The Old Wives Tale (1595); and *David and Fair Bethsabe (1599). His miscellaneous verse includes *Polyhymnia (1590) and The Hounour of the Garter (1593), a gratulatory poem to the Earl of Northumberland. Peele's work is dominated by courtly and patriotic themes, and his technical achievements include extending the range of non-dramatic blank verse. The jest book The Merrie Conceited Jests of George Peele (1607) seems to bear little relation to Peele's actual personality. His Life and Works were edited by C. T. Prouty (3 vols, 1952-70).
Greene, Robert (1558-92), born in Norwich, educated at St John's College and Clare Hall, Cambridge, from 1575 until 1583, and incorporated at Oxford in 1588. From about 1585 he lived mainly in London. Although he liked to stress his connections with both universities, his later literary persona was that of a feckless drunkard, who abandoned his wife and children to throw himself on the mercies of tavern hostesses and courtesans; writing pamphlets and plays was supposedly a last resort when his credit failed. He is said to have died of a surfeit of Rhenish wine and pickled herrings, though it may more likely have been plague, of which there was a severe outbreak in 1592. Greene was attacked at length by Gabriel *Harvey in Foure Letters (1592) as the 'Ape of Euphues' and 'Patriarch of shifters'; *Nashe defended him in Strange Newes in the same year, acknowledging Greene to have been a drunkard and a debtor, but claiming that 'Hee inherited more vertues than vices.' Greene's 37 publications, progressing from moral dialogues to prose romances, romantic plays, and finally realistic accounts of underworld life, bear out Nashe's assertion that printers were only too glad 'to pay him deare for the very dregs of his wit'. The sententious moral tone of his works suggests that his personal fecklessness and deathbed repentance may have been partly a pose.
Among the more attractive of his romances are the Lylyan sequel Euphues his Censure to Philautus (1587); *Pandosto: The Triumph of Time and Perimedes the Blacke-Smith (1588); *Menaphon (1589). Among his 'repentance' pamphlets are Greenes Mourning Garment and Greenes Never too Late (1590) and the work attributed to him *Greenes Groats-Worth of Witte (1592). Greenes Vision (1592) is a fictionalized acccount of his deathbed repentance in which he receives advice from *Chaucer, *Gower, and King Solomon. The low-life pamphlets include A Notable Discover of Coosenage (1591) and three 'conny-catching' pamphlets in the same years 1591-2. His eight plays were all published posthumously. The best known are Orlando furioso (1595), *Frier Bacon and Frier Bongay (1594) and *James the Fourth (1598), of which there are editions by J. A. Lavin and N. Sanders.
Greene is now best known for his connections with Shakespeare. The attack on him in the Groats-Worth of Witte (below) as an 'upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers' is the first reference to Shakespeare as a London dramatist, and his Pandosto provided Shakespare with the source for *The Winter's Tale. The voluminousness of Greene's works and the supposed profligacy of his life have caused him to be identified with the typical Elizabethan hack writer; he probably provided a name and a model for the swaggering Nick Greene in Virginia *Woolf's Orlando (1928) . Green's works were edited in 15 volumes by *Grosart (1881-6).
Greenes Groats-Worth of Witte, Bought with a Million of Repentance, a prose tract attributed to Robert *Greene, but edited and perhaps written by Henry *Chettle, published 1592.
It begins with the death of the miser Gorinius, who leaves the bulk of his large fortune to his elder son Lucanio, and only 'an old groat' to the younger, Roberto (i.e. the author), 'wherewith I wish him to buy a groatsworth of wit'. Roberto conspires with a courtesan to fleece his brother, but the courtesan betrays him, subsequently ruining Lucanio for her sole profit. The gradual degradation of Roberto is then narrated, and the tract ends with the curious 'Address' to his fellow playwrights *Marlowe, *Lodge, and *Peele, urging them to spend their wits to better purpose than the making of plays. It contains the well-known passage aobut the 'upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers', the *'Johannes fac totum¡, who 'is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a countrey', which probably refers to Shakespeare as a non-graduate dramatist newly arrived in London.
Lodge, Thomas (1558-1625), son of Sir Thomas Lodge, lord mayor of London, educated at Merchant Taylors' School, London, and Trinity Colelge, Oxford. He was a student of Lincoln's Inn in 1578. In 1579 he pubished an anonymous Defence of Poetyr, Music, and Stage Plays,a reply to *Gosson's Schoole of Abuse, and in 1584 An Alarum against Usurers (dedicated to Sir Philip *Sidney), depicting the danger that moneylenders present to young spendthrifts. Appended to it was a prose romance Forbonius and Prisceria. *Scillaes Metamorphosis, an Ovidian verse fable, was published in 1589. In about 1586 Lodge sailed on a privateering expedition to the Terceras and the Canaries, and in 1591-3 to South America. On the earlier voyage he wrote his best-known romance *Rosalynde (1590), 'hatcht in the stormes of the Ocean, and feathered in the surges of many perillous seas'. After four more minor prose romances he published Phillis: Honoured with Pastorall Sonnets, Elegies, and Amorous Delights (1593), including many poems adapted from Italian and French models , to which was appended 'The Complaynt of Elstred', the story of the unhappy mistress of King *Locrine. His play The Wounds of Civill War (1594), about Marius and Sulla, had been performed by the Lord Admiral's Men; he also wrote A Looking Glasse for London and England (1594), in collaboration with Robert *Greene. It is not clear whether he wrote any other plays. A Fig for Momus (1595) was a miscellaneous collection of satirical poems including epistles addressed to Samuel *Daniel and Michael *Drayton. Wits Miserie, and the Worlds Madnesse: Discovering the Devils Incarnate of this Age was published in 1596, as was a remarkable romance, *A Margarite of America, written during his second voyage, under Thomas Cavendish, while they were near the Magellan Straits. Lodge soon after this became a Roman Catholic, and studied medicine at Avignon; he was incorporated MD at Oxford in 1602, and in the next year published A Treatise of the Plague. He completed two major works of translation: The Famous and Memorable Works of Josephus (1602), which was frequently reprinted, and The Workes of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (1614). His last work was a translation of Goulart's commentary on *Du Bartas (1621). Lodge is now mainly remembered for Rosalynde and for the lyrics scattered throughout his romances. His works were edited by E. *Gosse (4 vols, 1883).
From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.
DEFOE, Daniel (1660-1731), born in London, the son of James Foe, a butcher. He changed his name to Defoe from c. 1695. He attended Morton's academy for Dissenters at Newington Green with a view to the ministry, but by the time he married Mary Tuffley in 1683/4 he was established as a hosiery merchant in Cornhill, having travelled in France, Spain, the Low Countries, and possibly Italy and Germany; he was absorbed by travel throughout his life. He took part in Monmouth's rebellion, and in 1688 joined the advancing forces of William III. His first important signed work was An Essay upon Projects (1697), followed by The True-Born Englishman (1701), an immensely popular satirical poem attacking the prejudice against a king of foreign birth and his Dutch friends. In 1702 appeared The Shortest Way with Dissenters, a notorious pamphlet in which Defoe, himself a Dissenter, ironically demanded the total and savage suppression of dissent; for this he was fined, imprisoned (May-Nov. 1703) and pilloried. While in prison he wrote his Hymn to the Pillory, a mock-Pindaric *ode which was sold in the streets to sympathetic crowds. Meanwhile various business projects (the breeding of civet cats, marine insurance, a brick works) had come to grief, and Defoe's fortunes were revived by Harley, the Tory politician, who arranged a pardon and employed him as a secret agent; between 1703 and 1714 Defoe travelled around the country for Harley and Godolphin gathering information and testing the political climate. Defoe wrote many pamphlets for Harley, and in 1704 began the Review; in the same year appeared his pamphlet Giving Alms No Charity and in 1706 True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs Veal, a vivid report of a current ghost story, probably by Defoe. Certain anti-Jacobite pamphlets in 1712-13 led to his prosecution by the Whigs and to a brief imprisonment. He now started a new trade journal, Mercator, in place of the Review. In 1715 he was convicted of libelling Lord Annesley (by implying that he was a Jacobite); he escaped punishment through the intervention of Townshend, the Whig secretary of state.
Defoe was an extremely versatile and prolific writer, and produced some 250 books, pamphlets, and journals, many anonymously or pseudonymously, but the works for which he is best known belong to his later years. *Robinson Crusoe appeared in 1719, the Farther Adventures following a few months later. The next five years saw the appearance of his most important works of fiction: Captain *Singleton in 1720, *Moll Flanders, A Journal of the *Plague Year, and *Colonel Jack in 1722; *Roxana, the *Memoirs of a Cavalier (now considered to be certainly by Defoe), his tracts on Jack *Sheppard, and A New Voyage round the World in 1724; The Four Voyages of Capt. George Roberts in 1726. His Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, a guidebook in three volumes (1624-26), is a vivid first-hand account of the state of the country, gleaned from his many travels, the last of which he appears to have taken in 1722. His last principal works were The Complete English Tradesman (1726), Augusta Triumphans (1728), A Plan of the English Commerce (1728) and The Complete English Gentleman,not published until 1890. He died in his lodgings in Ropemaker's Alley, Moorfields, and was buried in what is now Bunhill Fields. Defoe's influence on the evolution of the English novel was enormous, and many regard him as the first true novelist. He was a master of plain prose and powerful narrative, with a journalist's curiosity and love of realistic detail; his peculiar gifts made him one of the greatest reporters of his time, as well as a great imaginative writer who in Robinson Crusoe created one of the most familiar and resonant myths of modern literature. Important work on the Defoe canon by P. N. Furbank and W. R. Owens includes The Canonisation of Defoe (1988), Defoe De-Attributions (1994) and A Critical Biography of Daniel Defoe (1998).
The Review,a periodical started by *Defoe in 1704, under the title of A Weekly Review of the Affairs of France, which after various transformations became A Review of the State of the British Nation in 1707, it lasted until 1713. It was a non-partisan paper, an organ of the commercial interests of the nation: it appeared thrice weekly and was written, practically in its entirety, by Defoe himself, who excpressed in it his opinions on all current political topics, thus initiating the political leading article. It also had lighter articles on love, marriage, gambling, etc.: Defoe's attitude to his readers was that he strove to 'wheedle them in (if it may be allowed that expression) to the knowledge of the world; who, rather than take more pains, would be content with their ignorance, and search into nothing'.
The Life and Strange and Surprising Adventures ofRobinson Crusoe,a romance by *Defoe, published 1719.
In 1704 Alexander Selkirk, who had run away to sea and joined a privateering expedition under *Dampier, after a quarrel with his captain was put ashore on the uninhabited island of Juan Fernández. He was rescued in 1709 by Woodes *Rogers. Defoe was probably familiar with several versions of this tale, and added many incidents from his own imagination to his account of Crusoe, presenting it as a true story. The extraordinarily convincing account of the shipwrecked Crusoe's successful efforts to make himself a tolerable existence in his solitude first revealed Defoe's genius for vivid fiction; it has a claim to be the first English novel. Defoe was neraly 60 when he wrote it.
The author tells how, with the help of a few stores and utensils saved from the wreck and the exercise of infinite ingenuity, Crusoe built himself a house, domesticated goats, and made himself a boat. He describes his struggle to accept the workings of Providence, the perturbation of his mind caused by a visit of cannibals, his rescue from death of an indigenous native he later names Friday, and finally the coming of an English ship whose crew are in a state of mutiny, the subduing of the mutineers, and Crusoe's rescue.
The book had immediate and permanent success, was translated into many languages, and inspired many imitations, known generically as 'Robinsonades', including *Philip Quarll, *Peter Wilkins, and *The Swiss Family Robinson. Defoe followed it with The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1719), in which with Friday he revisits his island, is attacked by a fleet of canoes on his departure, and loses Friday in the encounter. Serious Reflections . . . of Robinson Crusoe . . . with His Vision of the Angelick World, which is more a manual of piety than a work of fiction, appeared in 1720, and was never as popular. The influence of Robinson Crusoe has been very great. *Rousseau in Émile recommended it as the book that should be studied by a growing boy, *Coleridge praised its evocation of 'the universal man', and *Marx in Das Kapital used it to illustrate economic theory in action.
In recent years 'Man (later Girl) Friday' came to describe a lowly assistant performing a multiplicity of tasks.
In The Rise of the Novel (1957) and other essays ian Watt provides one of the most controversial modern interpretations, relating Crusoe's predicament to the rise of bourgeois individualism, division of labour, and social and spiritual alienation. See David Blewett, The Illustration of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920 (1995).
Adventures of Captain Singleton,a romance of adventure by Defoe, published 1720.
Singleton, the first-person narrator, having been kidnapped in his infancy is sent to sea. Having 'no sense of virtue or religion', he takes part in a mutiny and is put ashore in Madagascar with his comrades; he reaches the continent of Africa and crosses it from east to west, encountering many adventures and obtaining much gold, which he dissipates on his return to England. He takes once more to the sea, becomes a pirate, carrying on his depredations in the West Indies, Indian Ocean, and China Seas, acquires great wealth, which he brings home, and finally marries the sister of a shipmate.
The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders,a romance by *Defoe, published 1722.
This purports to be the autobiography of the daughter of a woman who had been transported to Virginia for theft soon after her child's birth. The child, abandoned in England, is brought up in the house of the compassionate mayor of Colchester. The story relates her seduction, her subsequent marriages and liaisons, and her visit to Virginia, where she finds her mother and discovers that she has unwittingly married her own brother. After leaving him and returning to England, she is presently reduced to destitution. She becomes an extremely successful pickpocket and thief, but is presently detected and transported to Virginia in company with one of her former husbands, a highwayman. With the funds that each has amassed they set up as planters, and Moll moreover finds that she has inherited a plantation from her mother. She and her husband spend their declining years in an atmosphere of prosperity and ostensible penitence.
A Journal of the Plague Year,a historical fiction by *Defoe, published 1722.
It purports to be the narrative of a resident in London during 1664-5, the year of the Great Plague; the initials 'H.F.' which conclude it have been taken to refer to Defoe's uncle Henry Foe, a saddler, from whom the author may have heard some of the details he describes. It tells of the gradual spread of the plague, the terror of the inhabitants, and the steps taken by the authorities, such as the shutting up of infected houses and the prohibition of public gatherings. The symptoms of the disease, the circulation of the dead-carts, the burials in mass graves, and the terrible sce nes witnessed by the supposed narrator are described with extraordinary vividness. The general effects of the epidemic, notably in the closing down of trading and the flight from the city, are also related, and an estimate of the total number of deaths is made. The Journal embodied information from various sources, including official documents; some scenes appear to have been borrowed from *Dekker's The Wonderfull Yeare (1603). Defoe's subject was suggested by fears of another outbreak, following the one in Marseilles in 1721 which occasioned Sir Robert *Walpole's unpopular Quarantine Act. *Hazlitt ascribed to the work 'an epic grandeur, as well as heart-breaking familiarity'.
Colonel Jack, The History and Remarkable Life of Colonel Jacque, Commonly Call'd, a romance of adventure by *Defoe, published 1722.
The supposed narrator, abandoned by his parents in childhood, falls into bad company and becomes a pickpocket. His profession grows distasteful to him, he enlists, and presently deserts to avoid being sent to serve in Flanders. He is kidnapped, sent to Virginia, and sold to a planter. He is promoted to be an overseer, is given his liberty, becomes himself a planter, and acquires much wealth. He returns home and has a series of unfortunate matrimonial adventures, but finally ends in prosperity and repentenace.
Roxana, or The Fortunate Mistress, a novel by *Defoe, published 1724.
This purports to be the autobiography of Mlle Beleau, the beautiful daughter of Prench Protestant refugees, brought up in England and married to a London brewer, who, having squandered his property, deserts her and her five children. She enters upon a career of prosperous wickedness, passing from one protector to another in England, France, and Holland, amassing much wealth, and receiving the name Roxana by accident, in consequence of a dance that she performs. She is accompanied in her adventures by a faithful maid, Amy, a very human figure. She marries a respectable Dutch merchant in London and subsequently lives as a person of consequence in Holland. When one of her daughters appears on the scene in London, Roxana dares not acknowledge her, fearing that her past life will be revealed to her new spouse and her life of security will be ruined. When Amy says she will murder the girl, if necessary, to silence her inquiries about Roxana's identity, Roxana is filled with horror and relief. Both Amy and the girl disappear, and Roxana, miserable and apprehensive, is tormented by her conscience. Her husband discerns her iniquity and soon thereafter dies, leaving her only a small sum of money. In the company of her alter ego Amy, Roxana descends into debt, poverty, and remorseful penitence.
Memoirs of a Cavalier,a historical romance most probably by Defoe, published 1724.
The pretended author, 'Col. Andrew Newport', a young English gentleman born in 1608, travels on the Continent, starting in 1630 goes to Vienna, and accompanies the army of the emperor, being present at the siege and sack of Magdeburg, which is vividly presented. He then joins the army of Gustavus Adolphus, remaining with it until the death of that king and taking part in a number of engagements which he describes in detail. After his return to England he joins the king's army, first against the Scots, then against the forces of Parliament, being present at the battle of Edgehill, which he fully describes, the relief of York, and the battle of Naseby.
He aquí un libro, el primero de la serie "Narratologia: Contributions to Narrative Theory", en el que se me cita en diversas ocasiones. Al parecer lo ha scribdizado Iryna Holodiuk—no sé quién lo desescribdizará; ni siquiera sé si existen los desescribdizadores.
La pregunta "¿Qué es la narratología?" aparece como desamparada y solitaria, y casi parece desalentar una posible respuesta, aquí en primera página—pero no hay tal, porque recibe abundantes respuestas en el resto del libro.
From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.
Memoirs of Captain Carleton,a narrative published 1728 as The Memoirs of an English Officer, by Captain George Carleton. It was once thought to be by *Defoe, but is now known not to be by him or *Swift, to whom the work was sometimes groundlessly attributed. Captain Carleton, who unquestionably existed, is the subject of an attractive tale of soldierly adventure. Sir Walter *Scott, who regarded the Memoirs as Carleton's own work, brought out a new edition in 1808.
Carleton volunteers on board the London on the declaration of war with the Dutch in 1672. In 1674 he enters the service of the prince of Orange, remaining there until the peace of Nijmegen. Returning to England, he receives a commission from James II and serves in Scotland and then in Flanders until the peace of Ryswick. The most interesting part of the memoir follows. Carleton embarks with Lord Peterborough for Spain in 1705, and gives a stirring narrative of the siege, capture, and subsequent relief of Barcelona and of the campaign by which Peterborough, with scanty resources, temporarily placed the Archduke Charles on the throne of Spain. This is followed by some account of various parts of Spain visited by the author as a prisoner of war. See Steig Hargevick, The Disputed Assignment of 'Memoirs of an English Officer' to Daniel Defoe (2 vols; 1972, 1974).
Nuestras falsas reconstrucciones, normalmente pensadas para favorecer nuestra imagen, dependen de la falacia retrospectiva que Gee llama "the Beowulf effect", basado en la carencia de información y la sobrevaloración de la existente:
‘The Beowulf Effect’: The tendency to build a pleasing narrative history out of what is actually a very small sample. By analogy, he points out how utterly dependent the existing literature of Old English is on the sparse number of written lines that have survived.
The few fragments of Old English literature that have come down to us from that remote yet immense period have survived thanks only to blind chance. For example, 30,000 lines of Old English poetry are known to us–all that’s left of more than six hundred years of poetry and song. For comparison, Shakespeare’s plays total some 150,000 lines, written over a period of twenty-four years. What’s more, almost all Old English verse is found in just four surviving manuscripts, all written in the West Saxon dialect of Old English around the year 1000—which does not mean that we knew who originally composted them, nor in what language. [p. 59]
Y termina el libro, claro, con una meditación (à la Stephen Jay Gould) sobre las consecuencias éticas de la gratuidad humana, y de nuestra implausibilidad. Nuestra libertad y capacidad de autogestión.
Lo que desde luego es excepcional es plantearse el problema de la no excepcionalidad como tal—y el de la gratuidad de la existencia, perspectiva atea y ateleológica. No se hace tanto como se dice. Debe ser que, como dice Gee, asusta no tener certidumbres, y asusta... no tanto ser como los demás, sino saber que se es como los demás. En lo de saberlo, sí que hay una excepcionalidad, me parece, aporética si se quiere.
Y es que nos gusta ser la excepción, porque ser la medida de todas las cosas.... no es excepcional. Es la regla.
Not the one written by Thomas Heywood, but an apocryphal apology for actors and theatre, in the context of a conversation on 16th-century London, put in Shakespeare's mouth by Christopher Rush, in his novel Will (2007).
Whores and actors are not so far apart—both faking it for cash, and both die and rise again. But the Puritans accepted the whores as they could never accept the actors. Whores descended from Eve, theology sound as Genesis. The prostitue was easy to understand and to embrace. She was recognizable—her feet go down to death, her steps take hold on hell, her cunt is a cauldron of unholy lusts, and there is no whore without Eve. No Eve, no sin; no sin, no damnation; no damnation, no redemption—no Christ, no Church, no Pope. And no Pope, no Reformation, no Puritan to oppose the Great Whore herself, Babylon the great. The whores of London, kept the Puritan in his post, gave him his living. The Puritan could not exist without the whore. Whoredom was as needful to his church as it was to fallen man, fornicating his life away in London.
'And the players?'
With the players it was the contrary. Actors descend from neither Adam nor Eve but from Satan, who came onto the world's stage disguised as a serpent. It was the first costume and the devil the original actor, and a good one too. His tongue dropped honey and Eve was taken in. She fell down and worshipped him and her suddenly naked navel became the entrance to the theatre. That's why Puritans and players could never live together. Our false idols lined the route to hell—Dick Tarleton, Ned Alleyn, Bill Kempe popular as primroses—and so the player was far more damnable than the whore.
Your whore can take only one man at a time. If a dozen a day go through her she's doing well by doing ill. But a single player, he could command an entire theatre of spectators in one speech. In one world.
'Why, they would hang on him—'
As if increase of appetite had grown by what it fed on. One word? I tell you even a word was not necessary. Windy suspiration of forcèd breath, a sweeping gesture, your fingers on your lips I pray, yes, even silence. Even the very thought of silence. To die: to sleep; no more.
And that's how it was done. Nailed them to the ground and galleries and kept them from the pulpits, lured them to the theatres instead, to applaud the actors to the very echo that should applaud again, to wait breathless in the London afternoon for the next word, for the very next syllable. Oh yes, the player could do all this, all this and more. He was the god of the groundlings, idol of the aristocrats. The Puritan, though he played the orator as well as Nestor, could never sermonise an audience into such submission. Even the silver-tongued friar who made the fields his pulpit—the audiences walked over his ghost, trampling him into daisies, and streamed straight into the theatres. Fear had been the weapon up till now. But now seduction was stronger than fear, and seduction was in the air—no, it was in the air, the very air we breathed. And all the Puritan could do was rage.
'Conscience, morality, divine reason?'
It was the theatres that brought men's humanity out of chests and closets and whispering chambers and placed it up on stage, where a handful of poor players, with four or five most vile and ragged foils, right ill disposed in brawl ridiculous, blazoned it to the world. As for right reason, the fear of God, wisdom, understanding, the knowledge of the holy—ah, these are not the stuff as dreams are made on, these are but pale shadoes of people beside the player's ability to be a walking mirror to everyman, to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure, to make every spectator in that wooden circle see himself standing up there, standing up in the world for exactly what he is: man, tragical-comical, historical-pastoral, aspiring-despairing, delighted-deluded, in love, in hate, in heaven, in hell, a thing of darkness and of light, a lover, a tyrant, a madman, a poet, a dragon, a worm. So the poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage was rich in that one enormous regard, his ability to see himself and present himself in the round and inside out by a species of sorcery that left the Puritan gaping.
For the player was the man who showed you life as it is, not as it ought to be, who said what he felt, not what he ought to say.
'Truth's a dog must to kennel, I remember from somewhere.'
But a man's occulted guilt can itself unkennel in one speech, and guilty creatures sitting at a play are struck so to the soul that suddenly their spirits are off the leash and barking out the theatre, howling through the world. Did the spectator leave the theatre a purged and purer person? Or did he leave it corrupted? All a player can say is that he sent the theatre-goer out more human than he'd come in—which is the end of art and no bad boast: to make us more ourselves, not less ourselves, as the Puritans would have had it, by plucking us out of the murk and mire of humankind.
Whatever the truth, the Puritan feared the player. And he feared the play, which staged several players, and the playhouse, which put out many plays. Theatres were outposts of hell, Satan's garrisons. Hell was an occupying force in England and its legions were in London, where the traffic of the stage took two thousand to hell in two hours. A frightening figure. Worse—with half a dozen plays running on any given afternoon the theatres were capable of ushering the entire cast of London into hell in ten days flat—which ought to have pleased your Puritan. So many souls bound straight for hell, with damnèd speeches buzzing in their ears, surely all the greater space for the elect and élite of God in their silent white heaven. But that perhaps is what they feared most—being with themselves.
'So you hated them, Will.'
The very name's a lie. Puritan. To the Puritan all things were impure. They could find no good in man, nor any god in man, and they lashed man himself and his eternal companion and corrupter, woman, for all evils. Even the queen was not spared. And puritan Stubbes, who pamphleteered against her, had his offending hand cut off. But in all their accusations they never accused themselves, though within their snow-broth blood there bubbled the same old cauldron of unholy appetites. Your Puritan wants to fuck the thing he fears and then to kill the thing he fucks—or, if he cannot have it, he must kill it to ease his fury. What was he really? At best he was a boil on the bum, spoiling your seat in the theatre: at worst a wild beast in the bowels. The ultimate revenge is to put him in the play, show him sick of self-love and laugh him to scorn—or stop the laughter and make the people hate him for what he is: ambassador of death, killer of laughter, a syphilis in the soul, a negation of all that is human and lovely and of good report.
'And graven images—?'
Are what we want—and what the players give us. We long for imitation. We long to be happy. Only the gods are bored. And the Puritans wanted us to be as gods. So I gave them instead unregenerate man, incapable of their Jesus: the poor wild Bedlam who ate the old rat in the fury of his heart, and the darkness that was Caliban. I gave them not their strait and narrow gateway to God, but the broad primrose way, the playhouse way. For the theatre was the only place in London you could go to outside the ale-house to hear an honest comment on our lives, uncolored by fear of God or the grave. Here the players were indeed the only men. Their theatres were islands of art rising out of the crude sea of corruption that surrounded them on all sides. They were the clear bright bells of London, beating loudly and sweetly over the sodden city.
(Christopher Rush, Will, Beautiful Books, 2007, pp. 200-204).
From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.
Pamela,or Virtue Rewarded, a novel by *Samuel Richardson, published 1740-1.
The first of Richardson's three novels, Pamela consists, like them, entirely of letters and journals, of which Richardson presents himself as the 'editor'.
He believed he had hit upon 'a new species of writing' but he was not the inventor of the *epistolary novel, several of which already existed in English and French. He did however raise the form to a level hitherto unknown, and transformed it to display his own particular skills.
There are six correspondents in Pamela, most with their own particular style and point of view, but Pamela herself provides most of the letters and journals, with the 'hero', Mr B., having only two. Pamela Andrews is a handsome, intelligent girl of 15 when her kind employer Lady B. dies. Penniless and without protection, Pamela is pursued by Mr B., Lady B.'s son, but she repulses him and remains determined to retain her chastity and her unsullied conscience. Letters reveal Mr B's cruel dominance and pride, but also Pamela's half-acknowledged tenderness for him, as well as her vanity, prudence, and calculation. Angrily Mr B., separates her from her friends, Mrs Jervis the housekeeper and Mr Longman the steward, and dispatches her to B— Hall, his remote house in Lincolnshire, where she is imprisoned, guarded, and threatened by the cruel Mrs. Jewkes. Only the chaplain, Mr Williams, is her friend, but he is powerless to help. For 40 days, allowed no visits or correspondence, she keeps a detailed journal, analysing her situation and her feelings, and at the same time revealing her faults of prudence and pride. She despairs, and begins to think of suicide. Mr B., supposing her spirit must now be broken, arrives at B— Hall, and thinking himself generous, offers to make her his mistress and keep her in style. She refuses indignantly, and he later attempts to rape her and then to arrange a mock-marriage. Two scenes by the pond mark a turning point in their relationship. Both begin to be aware of their faults, and of the genuine nature of their affection. However, Pamela again retreats and refuses his proposal of marriage. She is sent away from B— Hall, but a message gives her a last chance. Overcoming her pride and caution, she decides to trust him, accepts his offer, and they are married. In the remaining third of the book Pamela's goodness wins over even lady Davers, mr. B's supercilious sister, and becomes a model of virtue to her circle of admiring friends; but (as in Pamela, Part II) the author's creative drive becomes overwhelemed by his urge to moralize.
The book was highly successful and fashionable, and further editions were soon called for. Richardson felt obliged to continue his story, not only becaue of the success of Pamela but because of the number of forged continuations that began to appear. Pamela, Part II appeared in 1741. Here Pamela is exhibited, through various small and separate instances, as the perfect wife, patiently leading her profligate husband to reform; a mother who adores (and breastfeeds) her children, and a friend who is at the disposal of all, and who brings about the penitence of the wicked. Much space is given over to discussion of moral, domestic, and general subjects.
*Shamela (1741, almost certainly by *Fielding) vigorously mocked what the author regarded as the hypocritical morality of Pamela; and Fielding's Joseph Andrews, which begins as a parody of Pamela, appeared in 1742.
Sentiments and Spectators: Adam Smith's Moral Phiilosophy
A lecture by Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, "Sentiments and Spectators: Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy." (The Human Nature Tradition in Anglo-Scottish Philosophy: History and Future Prospects. The Shalem Center, Jerusalem, Dec. 14-17, 2009). YouTube (gsmunc)
Alguien ha cogido mi trabajillo de curso sobre Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis, de Blasco Ibáñez, de hace casi (o sin casi) treinta años, y lo ha colocado de introducción a una edición electrónica del libro, en "Libros Tauro", y de ahí a Scribd... poniéndole mal el título. La Apocalipsis, la llaman, o la Apolacipsis.... En fin, yo ya ni protesto por estas cosas, además las protestas a Rita.
Mejor lo consideraré mi primera publicación argentina, y no es la menos indicada por cierto.
Entre los días 20 y 22 de noviembre tendrá lugar en Zaragoza el V Congreso Iberoamericano de Cultura, Cultura digital, cultura en red. Nacidos en 2008 y con una periodicidad anual estos Congresos repasan aspectos clave para el mundo cultural iberoamericano en un contexto rápidamente cambiante. La I edición tuvo lugar en México D.F. (México) en 2008 en torno al cine y el audiovisual. En 2009, fue Sao Paulo (Brasil) con el tema Cultura y transformación social. En 2010 fue Medellín (Colombia) sobre el ámbito musical iberoamericano. En 2011, el Congreso se realizó en Mar de Plata (Argentina) analizando las relaciones entre cultura, política y participación. Finalmente este de Zaragoza en 2013 acogerá los debates sobre Cultura digital, cultura en red. Creemos que es una buena oportunidad para los miembros de la Facultad poder participar en un foro de estas características al que acuden reconocidos profesores, comunicadores e investigadores en el ámbito de la cultura. La estructura del congreso, el concurso Emprende con Cultura y la propuesta de actividades culturales lo hacen muy atractivo. La inscripción es gratuita y debe hacerse en la página web correspondiente hasta el 10 de noviembre. Para el personal universitario que lo solicite se otorgará un diploma de asistencia. Así mismo se informa de que desde la Organización del Congreso se ha organizado un servicio gratuito de transporte para los inscritos. El servicio saldrá del centro de la ciudad. Los puntos de salida pueden consultarse en la página de la Organización http://www.culturaiberoamerica.org
Y en fin, allí aparece, en 35 páginas web, una larga lista de escritos míos, tecleados a lo largo de treinta años, cuando aún era una joven promesa y no un gris cincuentón. Desde mis trabajos de curso de cuando era estudiante a principios de los 80, hasta los posts del blog de principios de 2010—pasando por publicaciones académicas de años intermedios, todo ello con abundantes enlaces, gratis et amore, caviare to the general. Y terminamos con una bibliografía secundaria, muy secundaria—una lista de reseñas sobre mí y referencias a mis escritos, escasas pero en general favorables.
Así que ahí queda lo que hice en lo que fue mi vida ya pasada...— for what it's worth.
A dialogue between Owen Flanagan (left) and Alex Rosenberg (right). On naturalism, i.e. the philosophical view that the natural sciences provide the framework for the setting of problems in philosophy and the human sciences. ____
Con el planteamiento simplista y consecuencias (consecuentemente) simplistas de Alex Rosenberg, no me extraña que tenga mala prensa el naturalismo, como mala filosofía, ciega a todo lo que no entra en sus estrechos planteamientos.
Aquí hay a título de ejemplo un PDF de un ensayo evolucionista sobre Hamlet: "Intentional meaning in Hamlet: An Evolutionary Perspective." Ahora que estoy con el último año de docencia de la asignatura con nombre de persona, "Shakespeare", me intriga saber qué añade Carroll a la visión de Hamlet del hombre, el primero entre las bestias—un animal que no le agrada al príncipe. Ni la mujer tampoco, por si alguno se pensaba otra cosa.
Un documental hipotético a partir de la situación presente y sus tendencias, que presenta una perspectiva malthusiana sobre lo que será el estado de insostenibilidad de la humanidad hacia la segunda mitad del siglo XXI. Minuto 2.55.00: EL HIPERCONFLICTO.
Una publicación electrónica mía—en colaboración y, supongo, en Amazon. Anuncian allí una edición electrónica de este libro, Gender, I-deology, de la cual no tenía noticia este sufrido autor/editor, que lo editó para Rodopi en 1996.
Traduciendo, más o menos, viene a ser Género e ideología del yo: Ensayos sobre teoría de la representación, literatura de ficción y cine. Mi capítulo introductorio sobre "Gender, I-deology and Addictive Repressentation—The Film of Familiarity" creo que está entero, salvo un par de páginas de bibliografía. Aquí abajo puede verse, o aquí en Google Play.
Este AlcorZe es el buscador remozado de la Biblioteca Universitaria de Zaragoza, y ahora incluye en sus listados no sólo libros de los fondos de la biblioteca, sino también capítulos de libro, artículos, e incluso los documentos PDF subidos al repositorio Zaguán.
Buscamos en http://alcorze.unizar.es "Jose Angel Garcia Landa" así sin comillas.
Y salen allí a estas alturas, según esta búsqueda, 166 publicaciones mías de diverso pelaje y entidad. Vamos, too much of a good thing. Les recomiendo que, de ir a leer alguna, seleccionen las mejores, o en su defecto, las más breves; si no, no acabaremos nunca, ni nos concentraremos en el presente. Que es lo que importa según los informes emitidos por las mejores autoridades.
Leyendo un estudio aparecido en el último número de Hermeneus sobre la comunicación entre la Administración y los inmigrantes en Cataluña, o Catalunya según se mire:
Vargas-Urpí, Mireia, Anna Gil-Bardají, and Marta Arumí Ribas (U Autónoma de Barcelona). "Inmigrantes en Cataluña: ¿Una comunicación efectiva en los servicios públicos?" Hermeneus 15 (2013): 291-322.
No va para nada el estudio sobre una comparación entre las ventajas del español o del catalán como lengua vehicular de la Administración ni ahora ni en la futura o hipotética nación catalana. Pero algunos de los datos que da son para dar que pensar a los nacionalistas, si los datos de cualquier género les diesen que pensar. Cito de la p. 300, sin comentarios aparte de la negrita añadida:
"Por otro lado, los usuarios se comunican con el personal de los servicios públicos a través de recursos y estrategias distintos. La mayoría (73%) afirma comunicarse en castellano simplificado. Un 44,4% recurre también a la ayuda de familiares y/o amigos que conocen el castellano o el catalán, mientras que un 25,4% se comunica o se ha comunicado en alguna ocasión con el personal de los servicios públicos con la ayuda de intérpretes-mediadores. Un 17,5% se comunica a través de gestos, un 14,3% utiliza el inglés y un 9,5% mediante dibujos y/o notas. El material informático bilingüe lo suele utilizar un 7.9% de la muestra y, finalmente, un 6,3% utiliza otras lenguas, siendo el catalán, el chino y el árabe las principales.
Nos pasan esta comunicación los sindicalistas de Comisiones Obreras. Más recortes, menos en las horas de clase, que por ahí no recortan:
El PDI de la Sección Sindical de CC.OO. en la UZ ha decidido por unanimidad:
1. Instar al Consejo de Dirección de la UZ a asegurar el mantenimiento de nuestros ya recortados complementos retributivos autonómicos: VAMOS A SER LOS ÚNICOS FUNCIONARIOS DE ESTA COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA CON UN NUEVO E IMPORTANTE RECORTE SALARIAL(20%)EN ENERO DE 2014.
2. Hacer público su rechazo unánime a la propuesta del Rectorado de aumento de la dedicación docente máxima del profesorado de la Universidad de Zaragoza.
Saludos cordiales, Sección Sindical CC.OO. UZ (PDI)
(A comment I add to a thread in PsyArt, as an answer to questions further discussed in Celia Hunt's 'Therapeutic Effects of Writing Fictional Autobiography', Life Writing, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp.231-244).
One might contend, perhaps, that the conscious BUT UNACKNOWLEDGED decision to beautify, streamline, skip, or otherwise "improve" the autobiographical truth by means of distortions, additions, or whatever, need not breach the autobiographical pact, in the sense that if the work is presented as an autobiography, the pact holds vis à vis the reader, and the writer keeps his cake and eats it. It is only when the accuracy of the portrayal is somehow publicly contested (more or less publicly, that is) that the autobiographical pact is dissolved, but even in this case the dissolution may not be complete, being rather more akin to a local weakening or a more generalized fading or blurring of the generic conventions. As to the possible therapeutic effects of intended distortions, it is rather a form of remedial work on the social face of the individual. To the extent that this face is or might be damaged unless the remedy is applied, this is preventive health care rather than therapy. Unconscious repair work may have additional dimensions, but anyway, a relevant question is, who does the evaluation? —from whose (reliable) viewpoint are these distortions to be defined as such?
Dryden seriamente purgado en esta versión, quizá con justicia poética. Queda la música de Purcell. Aquí puede oírse, pero hagan abstracción (también) de la india de la imagen. Las indias eran indias occidentales.
From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble
Pope, Alexander (1688-1744), the son of a Roman Catholic linen draper of London. His health was ruined and his growth stunted by a severe illness at the age of 12 (probably Pott's disease, a tubercular affection of the spine). He lived with his parents at Binfield in Windsor Forest and was largely self-educated. He showed his precocious metrical skill in his 'Pastorals' written, according to himself, when he was 16, and published in *Tonson's miscellany (vol. vi) in 1709. (For Pope's quarrel with Ambrose Philips on this subject see under PHILIPs , A.). He became intimate with *Wycherley, who introduced him to London life. His *Essay on Criticism (1711) made him known to Addison's circle, and his *'Messiah' was published in the Spectator in 1712. *The Rape of the Lock appeared in Lintot's Miscellanies in the same year and was republished, enlarged, in 1714. His Ode for Music on St Cecilia's Day (1713), one of his rare attempts at lyric, shows that his gifts did not lie in this direction. In 1713 he also published *Windsor Forest, which appealed to the Tories by its references to the Peace of Utrecht, and won him the friendship of *Swift. He drifted away from Addison's 'little senate' and became a member of the *Scriblerus Club, an association that included Swift, *Gay, *Arbuthnot, and others. He issued in 1715 the first volume of his translation in heroic couplets of Homer's *Iliad. This work, completed in 1720, is more *Augustan than Homeric in spirit and diction, but has nevertheless been much admired. *Coleridge thought it an 'astonishing product of matchless talent and ingenuity'. It was supplemented in 1725-6 by a translation of the *Odyssey, in which he was assited by William Broome and Elijah Fenton. The two translations brought him financial independence. He moved in 1718 with his mother to Twickenham, where he spent the rest of his life, devoting much time to his garden and grotto; he was keenly interested in *landscape gardening and committed to the principle 'Consult the Genius of the Place in all'.
In 1717 had appeared a collection of his works containing two poems dealing, alone among his works, with the passion of love. They are 'Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady', an elegy on a fictitious lady who had killed herself through hopeless love, and *'Eloisa to Abelard', in which Eloisa describes her inner conflicts after the loss of her lover. About this time he became strongly attached to Martha *Blount, with whom his friendship continued throughout his life, and to Lady Mary Wortley *Montagu, whom in later years he assailed with bitterness. Lady Mary left for Turkey in July 1716 and Pope sent her 'Eloisa to Abelard' with a letter suggesting that he was passionately grieved by her absence.
Pope assisted Gray in writing the comedy Three Hours after Marriage (1717) but made no other attempt at drama. IN 1723, four years after Addison's death, appeared (in a miscellany called Cytherea) Pope's portrait of *Atticus, a satire on Addison written in 1715. An extended version appeared as 'A Fragment of a Satire' in a 1727 volume of Miscellanies (by Pope, Swift, Arbuthot, and Gay)., and took its final form in An Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot (1735). In the same Miscellanies volume Pope published his prose treatise *Peri Bathous, or The Art of Sinking in Poetry, ridiculing among others Ambrose Philips, *Theobald, and John *Dennis. In 1725 Pope published an edition of Shakespeare, the errors in which were pointed out in a pamphlet by Theobald, Shakespeare Restored (1726). This led to Pope's selection of Theobald as hero of his *Dunciad, a satire on Dullness in three books, on which he had been at work for some time: the first volume appeared anonymously in 1728. Swift, who spent some months with Pope in Twickenham in 1726, provided much encouragement for this work, of which a further enlarged edition was published in 1729. An additional book, The New Dunciad, was published in 1742, prompted this time, it appears, by *Warburton. The complete Dunciad in four books, in which Colley Cibber replaces Theobald as hero, appeared in 1743. Influenced in part by the philosophy of his friend *Bolingbroke, Pope published a series of moral and philosophical poems, *Essay on Man (1733-34), consisting of four Epistles; and *Moral Essays (1731-5), four in number: Of the Knowledge and Characters of Men, Of the Characters of Women, and two on the subject Of the Use of Riches. A fifth epistle was added, addressed to Addison, occasioned by his dielogue on medals. This was originally written in Addison's lifetime, c. 1716. In 1733 Pope published the first of his miscellaneous satires, Imitations of Horace, entitled 'Satire I', a paraphrase of the first satire of the second book of Horace, in the form of a dialogue between the poet and William Fortescue, the lawyer. In it Pope defends himself against the charge of Malignity, and professes to be inspired only by love of virtue. He inserts, however, a gross attack on his former friend Lady Mary Wortley Montagu as 'Sappho'.He followed this up with his Imitations of Horace's Satires 2.2 and 1.2 ('Sober Advice from Horace'), in 1734, and of Epistles 1.6; 2.2; 2.1; and 1.1, in 1737. Horace's Epistle 1.7 and the latter part of Satire 2.6 'imitated in the manner of Dr Swift', appeared in 1738. The year 1735 saw the appearance of the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot, the prologue to the above Satires, one of Pope's most brilliant pieces of irony and invective, mingled with autobiography. It contains the famous portraits of Addison (ll. 193-214) and Lord *Hervey, and lashes his minor critics, Dennis, Cibber, *Curll, Theobald, etc. In 1738 appeared One Thousand Seven Hundred and Thirty Eight, two satirical dialogues. These satires, and the 'Satires (2 and 4) of Dr Donne Versified' (1735), with the New Dunciad, closed his literary career.
He was partly occupied during his later years with the publication of his earlier correspondence, which he edited and amended in such a manner as to misrepresent the literary history of the time. He also employed discreditable artifices to make it appear that it was published against his wish. Thus he procured the publication by Curll of his 'Literary Correspondence' in 1735, and then endeavored to disavow him.
With the growth of *Romanticism Pope's poetry was incresingly seen as artificial; Coleridge commented that Pope's thoughts were 'translated into the language of poetry'. *Hazlitt called him 'the poet not of nature but of art', and W. L. Bowles compared his work to 'a game of cards'; *Byron, however, was highly laudatory: 'Pope's pure strain / Sourght the rapt soul to charm, nor sought in vain.' Matthew *Arnold's famous comment, 'Dryden and Pope are not classics of our poetry, they are classics of our prose' (Essays in Criticism, 1880), summed up much 19th-cent. opinion, and it was not until *Leavis and *Empson that a serious attempt was made to rediscover Pope's richness, variety, and complexity.
Minor works that deserve mention are:
Verse: the Epistles 'To a Young Lady (Miss Blount) with the Works of Voiture (1712), to the same 'On her Leaving the town after the Coronation' (1717); 'To Mr Jervas with Dryden's Translation of Fresony's Art of Painting' (1716) and 'To Robert, Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer' (1721); 'Vertumnus and Pomona' , 'Sappho to Phaon', and 'The Fable of Dryope', translations from *Ovid (1712); *'January and May', 'The Wife of Bath, her Prologue', and The Temple of Fame, from *Chaucer (1709, 1714, 1715).
Prose:The Narrative of Dr Robert Norris (1713), a satirical attack on Dennis; A Full and True Account of a Horrid and Barbarous Revenge by Poison, on . . . Mr Edmund Curll (1716), an attack on Curll (to whom he had secretly administered an emetic).
The standard edn. of Pope's poetry is the Twickenham Edition, under the general editorship of J. Butt 811 vols. plus Index, 1940-69); see also G. Sherburn, The Early Career of Alexander Pope (1949); P. *Quennell, Alexander Pope: The Education of a Genius (1968), M. Mack, The Garden and the City (1969) and Alexander Pope: A Life (1985); Morris R. Brownell, Alexander Pope and the Arts of Georgian England (1978).
The Rape of the Lock,a poem by *Pope, in two cantos, published in Linto's Miscellany 172 as "The Rape of the Locke"; subsequently enlarged to five cantos and thus published 1714.
When Lord Petre forcibly cut off a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair, the incident gave rise to a quarrel between the families. With the idea of allaying this, Pope treated the subject in a playful *mock-heroic poem, on the model of *Boileau's Le Lutrin. He presents Belinda at her toilet, a game of ombre, the snipping of the lock while Belinda sips her coffee, the wrath of Belinda and her demand that the lock be restored, the final wafting of the lock, as a new star, to adorn the skies. The poem was published in its original form with Miss Fermor's permission. Pope then expanded the sketch by introducing the machinery of sylphs and gnomes, adapted from a light erotic French work, Le Comte de Gabalis, a series of five discourses by the Abbé de Montfaucon de Villars, which appeared in English in 1680; in his dedication he credits both Gabalis and the *Rosicrucians. (See also PARACELSUS). One of Pope's most brilliant performances, it has also been one of his most popular: Dr.*Johnson called it 'the most attractive of all ludicrous compositions', in which 'New things are made familiar and familiar things are made new'.
Essay on Man,a philosophical poem in heroic couplets by *Pope, published 1733-34, part of a larger poem projected but not completed.
It consists of four epistles addressed to *Bolingbroke, and perhaps to some extent inspired by his fragmentary philosophical writings. Its objective is to vindicate the ways of God to man; to prove that the scheme of the universe is the best of all possible schemes, in spirte of appearances of evil, and that our failure to see the perfection of the whole is due to our limited vision. 'Partial Ill' is 'universal Good', and 'self-love and social' are directed to the same end; 'All are but parts of one stupenduous whole / Whose body Nature is, and God the soul.' The epistles deal with man's relations to the universe, to himself as an individual, to society, and to happiness. D. *Stewart thought the Essay 'the noblest specimen of philosophical poetry our language affords' (Active and Moral Powers, 1828), but Dr *Johnson commented, 'Never were penury of knowledge and vulgarity of sentiment so happily disguised.' Pope's attempts to prove that 'Whatever is, is right' anticipate the efforts of Pangloss in *Voltaire's Candide.
Muchas cosas al (re)leer David Copperfield son un déjà vu, pero ésta más:
"Todos nosotros hemos pasado por momentos en los que nos ha invadido súbitamente la sensación de que lo que estamos diciendo y haciendo en ese instante lo hemos dicho y hecho ya antes, en épocas muy lejanas . . . ; de que en confusos tiempos pasados nos hemos visto rodeados de los mismos rostros, de los mismos objetos y de las mismas situaciones . . . ; de que sabemos con exactitud lo que va a decirse acto seguido, como si nos hubiésemos acordado de ello repentinamente. Yo no había experimentado esa sensación en mi vida con tal viveza como un segundo antes de que pronunciase Micawber esas palabras."
Blog de notas de José Ángel García Landa (Biescas y Zaragoza) :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: "Algo hay en el formato mismo de los blogs que estimula un desarrollo casi canceroso de nuestro ego" (John Hiler)